In Wales, Harris and Rowland patched up their differences, and the revival regained its momentum.

The revival thus began almost everywhere in resistance to a real or perceived threat of assimilation by the modern state, and its timetable even in the west was set by the timetable of the Protestant crisis in eastern and central Europe where the threat was most crude. But what had begun as an effort to revive the smouldering embers of religious faith in the absence of the ordinary ecclesiastical mechanisms, a testimony to the priesthood of all believers, changed as it moved westwards into a clerically managed device for solving intractable pastoral problems; most dramatically in America it issued in the creation of vast bureaucratic machines on a scale unknown in the Old World. Nowhere, except perhaps in Wales, were the hopes of reform in church and nation realized, but both church and nation were changed. Theological pluralism became the normal condition of the churches, and in the Habsburg Empire Joseph II's Toleration Patent (1781) showed that even the New Leviathan was pursuing assimilation more cautiously.


1. Dalter Nigg, Heimliche Weisheit. Mystische Leben in der Evangelische Christenheit (Zurich and Stuttgart: Artemis Verlag, 1959), p. 137.

2. The works of Jonathan Edwards, ed. S. E. Dwight and E. Hickman, 2 vols. (1834; repr. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1974), vol. 1, pp. 276, 309; A. Heimert, Religion and the American mind from the Great Awakening to the Revolution, 2nd edn (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968), pp. 42-3.

4. John Venn, The life and a selection of letters of the late Henry Venn, ed. H. Venn (London, 1834), p. 18.

6. Repr. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1981.

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