Onboard the Traveller was Perry Locke, a licensed Methodist preacher, 'with a hard voice for a preacher', Cuffee commented delicately (Cuffee reminded Locke in Freetown that Locke had complained in America about being denied his liberties and was again murmuring because he was called upon to serve as a juror. 'Go and fill thy seat and do as well as thou canst', Cuffee told him.8) Another passenger, Anthony Survance, was a native of Senegal. He had been sold to the French in Saint Domingue and escaped to Philadelphia during the Revolution. He learned to read and write and studied navigation, though, in spite of professional interest, life at sea ill suited him because of his susceptibility to seasickness. Cuffee mused privately that Survance would not make a good mariner. Survance joined the voyage at his own expense, intending eventually to make it to his home in Senegal.

The party dropped anchor in Freetown on 3 February 1816. Unbeknownst to Cuffee, the attitude ofthe Freetown establishment towards him had meanwhile hardened, and he was beset with landing difficulties. He was subjected to heavy customs duties for his goods, diminishing any hope he entertained of making a profitable going of his venture. For consolation, the governor and chief justice granted Cuffee an audience. The Freetown traders and commercial interests who conspired to shut out Cuffee were determined to prevent any American penetration of the West African market. Thwarted in Sierra Leone, Cuffee returned to America to continue his antislavery and missionary campaign. He died there in July 1817.

Sierra Leone as a 'Christian experiment' was substantially changed for good with the introduction of African 'recaptives' following the abolition of the slave trade in 1807. The British Naval Squadron patrolled the extended West African coastline, impounding slaves bound for the New World and landing them in Freetown. They were resettled into parish communities organized around church, school, and farm. These recaptives hailed from all parts of the African continent and in time formed the backbone of the settlement. They swamped the original Nova Scotian settlers, and took over much of the work of education, community government, and evangelization. From their ranks emerged a new mobile middle class with an influence far beyond its size. That middle class would later become the ironic nemesis of colonialism, and of much else besides.

Paul Cuffee's legacy in America was an enduring one, and it led directly to the establishment of Liberia as a settlement for freed slaves from the southern United States. Robert S. Finley, a Presbyterian minister from New Jersey and later president of the University of Georgia, had been campaigning for the creation of a settlement in Africa for freed slaves. He made contact with

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