His educational system stressed active, experiential learning, including the actual handling of objects in the natural sciences and practical training in technology.

Turning to the English contribution to missions, the policy of the East India Company had been largely hostile to Christian missions within Company territories, viewing the missions as a disruptive presence that would create tensions between the Company and local inhabitants. However, from 1792 pressures from evangelical public opinion upon the British parliament forced the Company to allow missionary chaplains to enter the East India Company's service in India. The father of the modern missionary movement among the British Protestants was William Carey, an evangelical who greatly admired the work of the German Evangelicals in India. He arrived in India in 1792 but he encountered many difficulties at the hands of the British East India Company and he was initially banned from Calcutta. With the Baptists Joshua Marshman and William Ward, Carey established a mission at Serampore, a Danish colonial enclave near Calcutta. Along with the Christian mission, Carey and his associates promoted the study of languages in order to translate the Scriptures and they created both western-style schools and a printing press. He was later able to enter Calcutta, but only by virtue of his ability to teach Indian languages at Fort William College. Carey's presence in Bengal not only advanced the Christian mission, but also contributed to enhanced cultural interactions between India and the west. In 1813, by the act renewing the East India Company Charter, the British parliament granted Christian missionaries the right to enter into British territories in India. At the same time, parliament created an Anglican establishment in India, endowed by Company revenues, with a Bishop of Calcutta exercising diocesan authority over the British territories, assisted by archdeacons in Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. The first Bishop of Calcutta, the moderate High Churchman, Thomas F. Middleton, was consecrated in London in May 1814, and arrived in Calcutta in November 1814. This Anglican establishment and the growing number of missionaries of all denominations led to a steady increase in the numbers of missionary schools, colleges, and hospitals. Nevertheless, the tension between British officials looking primarily for stability and British missionaries working for social reform and conversions would continue to trouble the Raj throughout the nineteenth century.

The impact of English education also proved a mixed blessing for the British Empire in India. William Jones, an undogmatic Christian with an abiding respect for the religions of India, founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal in Calcutta in 1784, to promote the study of Indian culture and religion. Following

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