the 'Unanswerable' Hooker, but without Hooker's constitutional limitations on the crown. The point was now to use Hooker to resist the new phenomenon of separated Dissent and to insist on the Christian duty of obedience in place of Dissent's appeal to private judgement. For Parker, it was enough that the Church of England's 'Forms and Institutions are not only countenanced by the best and purest times of Christianity, but establisht by the Fundamental Laws of the Land', since 'the Supreme Magistrate of every Common-wealth should be vested with a Power to govern and conduct the Consciences of Subjects in Affairs of Religion'.10

The second challenge, that of Roman Catholic Dissent, came to prominence from the 1670s with the conversion to Catholicism of the heir presumptive, James, Duke of York. The response to this challenge produced not only the definition of a new secular political ideology, Whiggism, but also a remarkable outpouring of Anglican ecclesiological and theological writing dedicated to rebutting the claims of Rome. In the Exclusion Crisis of 1679-81, produced by a Whig attempt to bar James from the succession, churchmen defended the monarchy without giving prominence to the idea of establishment. Rather, they claimed that the Church of England 'doth hold, teach, andpractice Loyalty above all others in the World; the Divines thereof generally holding Monarchy to be of Divine Right', by contrast with the Roman Church, which held that kings derived their authority from the people and were open to being censured or deposed by the pope. This political stance followed from the fact that 'The present Religion of the Church of England is no new device of ours, but the very same that our Lord Jesus and his Apostles have left upon Record'. Religious truth was the yardstick: As for the penalties inflicted on Dissenters by our Laws, they are rather for disturbing the Peace of the Civil Government, than for differing from us in Judgment'.11

In 1707 the Whig High Churchman John Potter provided the classic summation of this ecclesiology. Still aimed equally against Rome and Geneva, it professed to vindicate both the 'inherent Rights' of the Church of England since the Reformation and the 'just Prerogative' of the civil magistrate on the basis of the 'Constitution, Government and Rights of the Christian Church' as established by the Scriptures and the Fathers. It was a work intended 'towards the putting a Stop to those Erastian and other licentious Principles, which are too rife, and have been too much countenanc'd by some among us'. Potter argued that the church possessed only spiritual powers; nevertheless, the church was 'not a mere voluntary Society, but one whereof Men are oblig'd to be Members' since 'this Society is appointed with an inforcement of Rewards and Punishments'. It was governed after Christ's death by 'a Succession of the

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