deny the divinity of Christ.5 In the tract simply not being fanatical became the key to true religiosity. This anonymous author had taken a religious journey that key thinkers of the early Enlightenment in England also took. Some Protestants like John Locke would remain Christians while wanting a more rational Christianity; his exact contemporary against whom Locke sometimes wrote, John Toland, eventually left the Christian fold entirely. One tract from his pen bore the title Socinianism truly Stated...Recommended by a Pantheist to an Orthodox Friend (1705). Toland did not tell what he meant by being a pantheist -a term he coined in the tract - but he made it clear it had little to do with Christian orthodoxy.
In the 1690s, John Locke published a tract intended to bolster Christianity, The Reasonableness of Christianity (London, 1695), and in it he tried to pare it down to essentials. The following year, when pre-publication censorship had been removed, the deist soon to turn pantheist, John Toland, answered him with Christianity not Mysterious (1696). Why have religious doctrines or dogmas at all? Why not just find a set of reasonable principles founded on nature's laws on which everyone could agree? The persecutions and the efforts to impose absolutism on the unwilling put pressure on all Protestants to decide how to articulate the virtues of religious belief and practice. We now knowthat Locke wrote the Reasonableness because he had seen a pre-publication copy of Toland's manifesto for an unmysterious religiosity that had more to do with deism and the secular than it did with Christianity.6 Both Toland and Locke belonged to the same political party. Toland had even trained for the Presbyterian ministry -briefly - at Leiden in the Netherlands. Locke, like Newton, secretly did not believe in the doctrine ofthe Trinity. But both Newton and Locke were horrified at where reasonableness, coupled with a grasp on the new science, could take someone like Toland, especially when combined with being angry at the high and the mighty.
Sorting out the varieties, the twists and turns that Protestantism took late in the seventeenth century, partly because of historic tensions within its diverse doctrinal groupings but largely because of the pressure put upon it by the threat of absolutism - or the fear of its return - requires nuance. It is useful to think of an emerging, conservative Protestant version of the Enlightenment that can be seen in Britain, the Netherlands and parts of Germany. Its advocates like Locke endorsed religious toleration, at least for all Protestants, and they were receptive to the new science. They had no time for deism or the bawdy so beloved by the publishers. Pierre Marteau would not have been welcomed among pious conservatives, but his type might have found a home among 'fringe' Protestant sects like the Mennonites and the Collegiants in
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