of the New Birth, pruned of the laborious Puritan morphology of conversion, in the languages of the Bible, the market-place and human emotion. When the Holy Spirit grasped a man's soul it was a great and self-validating experience. Thus abnormal psychological phenomena which had been marginalized as enthusiasm in the old Puritan system might now be regarded as evidence of spirit-possession.

In response to these phenomena, church authority made its comeback. James Davenport, who on the authority of Acts 19:19 burnt religious books, was twice judicially found insane; Jonathan Edwards began insisting that those applying for church membership must give a strict testimony to the work of grace, and in 1750 he was thrown out of his parish. Whitefield, unable to rally the same breadth of ministerial support, never again enjoyed the same preaching success. By 1744 the awakening in New England was virtually over.

The awakening, however, experienced a second and prolonged period of life on the other side of the Atlantic, in the United Kingdom and the United Provinces. A central role in the propaganda for this stage of the revival was taken by a group of Church of Scotland ministers. John Gillies, Church of Scotland minister of the College Church in Glasgow, updated the Acts of the Apostles in his Historical Collections of Accounts of Revival, published in four volumes between 1754 and 1786.6 But it was Whitefield who helped to unify both the friends and enemies of the revival by focusing the division of spirits on himself.

In England as on the continent the refugee question had left its mark. The Dissenting divine and hymn-writer Philip Doddridge was the grandson of a Bohemian refugee and had a hot line to Johann Adam Steinmetz of Teschen who had Doddridge's Family Expositor translated into German as an antidote to Moravianism. Huguenots gathered round Wesley and were thickly clustered in parts of the East End and old West End of London where his work had begun. In the French-speaking Perronet family he picked up victims of Swiss High Orthodoxy. Among the Palatines, who had been planted in the south of Ireland early in the eighteenth century, Wesley found an almost Silesian situation. Deprived of their church, but clinging to the Luther Bible, the Palatines in Ireland rallied enthusiastically to him, and they later took their Methodism to America. The British shared with their co-religionists abroad a fear of'atheism', and a panic at the prospect of a final Armageddon between Catholic and Protestant, with evangelicals prominent amongthe propagandists. Wesley had come out of the narrowest ofJacobite stables, while Whitefield was patronized by William Pulteney, Earl of Bath. The Georgia enterprise which first brought them into public life was conducted by a nest of Jacobites. Wesley returned

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