Info

capable of adapting to the changing social and political circumstances. Despite the powerful, unprecedented anti-Christian forces that had emerged in the later eighteenth century, the nineteenth century would be the 'great century' of Christian expansion and diversification in the world and of the campaign for the end of the moral stain of slavery. The Christian awakenings between 1790 and 1815, with their belief in divine intervention in human affairs, their emphasis on personal faith and devotion, and their calls for social activism, did much not only to preserve European Christianity against the unprecedented onslaught of the French Revolution, but also to strengthen it for the challenges and opportunities of the nineteenth century.

Notes

1. J. C. Herold, Mistress to an age: A life of Madame de Stäel (London, 1959), p. 451.

2. H. Troyat, Alexander of Russia: Napoleon's conqueror, trans. J. Pinkham (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1982), p. 232.

3. R. Price, A discourse on the love of our country (London, 1790), pp. 40-1.

4. F. Schleier macher, The life of Schleiermacher, as unfolded in his autobiography and letters, trans. F. Rowan, 2 vols. (London: Smith, Elder & Co., i860), vol. 1, p. 109.

5. A. D. Gilbert, Religion and society in industrial England: Church, chapel and social change 1740-1914 (London: Longman, 1976), pp. 34, 31.

6. G. M. Ditchfield, The evangelical revival (London: UCL Press, 1998), p. 92.

7. T. W Laquer, Religion andrespectability: Sunday schools and working class culture 1780-1850 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976), p. 44.

8. W Carey, An enquiry into the obligations of Christians to use means for the conversion of heathens (Leicester: Ann Ireland, 1792), p. 62.

9. M. Broers, The politics of religion in Napoleonic Italy: The war against God, 1801-1814 (New York: Routledge, 2002), p. 55.

10. D. Beales, Prosperity and plunder: European Catholic monasteries in the age of revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 272-4.

11. T. C. W Blanning, The French Revolution in Germany: Occupation and resistance in the Rhineland, 1792-1802 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), pp. 220-5; Beales, Prosperity and plunder, pp. 282-6.

12. R. Southey, Letters from England (1807), ed. J. Simmons (London: Cresset, 1951), p. 431.

13. R. A. Soloway, Prelates and people: Ecclesiastical social thought in England 1783-1852 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969), pp. 39-40.

14. H. Lehmann, 'Pietistic millenarianism in late eighteenth-century Germany', in E. Hellmuth (ed.), The transformation ofpolitical culture: England and Germany in the late eighteenth century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, i990), p. 333.

16. [F. von Hardenberg], Novalis: Philosophical writings, trans. and ed. M. Mahony Stoljar (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, i997), p. i50.

17. N. Aston, Christianity andrevolutionary Europec.1750-1830 (Cambridge: CambridgeUni-versity Press, 2002), pp. 230-i.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment