capable of adapting to the changing social and political circumstances. Despite the powerful, unprecedented anti-Christian forces that had emerged in the later eighteenth century, the nineteenth century would be the 'great century' of Christian expansion and diversification in the world and of the campaign for the end of the moral stain of slavery. The Christian awakenings between 1790 and 1815, with their belief in divine intervention in human affairs, their emphasis on personal faith and devotion, and their calls for social activism, did much not only to preserve European Christianity against the unprecedented onslaught of the French Revolution, but also to strengthen it for the challenges and opportunities of the nineteenth century.


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