the Jesuits such as the uprising in Madrid or the failed assassination attempts in Portugal and France. In addition to pressure from Spain, the combination of 'Enlightened' and Jansenist justification is evident in either place, in Parma in the persons of Duke Ferdinand's first minister Guillaume Du Tillot, admirer of the French encyclopaedists, and the Jansenist Theatine monk Paolo Maria Paciaudi, Duke Ferdinand's librarian, from whom Du Tillot acquired his antiJesuit animus. Hard pressed on all sides, Clement XIII reacted violently when Parma promulgated a Gallican-like pragmatic requiringroyalpermission for all decrees emanating from ecclesiastical authorities - the papacy claimed Parma as a feudal fief- fulminating a brief not only annulling this and like measures as 'iniquitous' and 'temerarious' but also excommunicating all who had advised or implemented them.20 The anachronistic spectre of a papal interdict and the exercise of indirect power over temporal states reactivated the Bourbon powers now acting in concert, resulting in the French occupation ofthe papal enclaves of Avignon and Comtat Venaissin along with the Neapolitan seizure of Benevento and Pontecorvo.

Although the so-called third Bourbon alliance or 'family pact' between France and Spain did not begin to weigh as a factor against the Jesuits until after the expulsion from Spain, the idea of a concert of Catholic powers for such a purpose first appears in the correspondence of Bottari who, writing to the abbe Clement in 1759, opined that 'the only remedy is that France and Vienna unite with Portugal and Spain and ask the papacy for the suppression [of the society, as was done] in the case of the Templars'.21 As one of the purposes of the Jansenist epistolary network was to influence Catholic court policy, and as Bottari was in at least indirect contact with all of Jansenist Europe, the idea could not have failed to make the rounds including magistrates such as Clement's brother in the parlement of Paris.

Bottari returned to his project of a French-led alliance against the Jesuits in early October 1765 and again on 29 April 1767 in the wake of the expulsion in Spain. If successful, such a project, he thought, 'would free the church of God from one of the fiercest and most damnable persecutions she has ever endured'.22 Whereupon the abbe Chauvelin, one of the original architects of the suppression in France, persuaded the parlement of Paris to reiterate its call for such a crusade on 9 May 1767 while two days later Choiseul broached the idea with Louis XV in the Council of State, opining that 'what... would suit us best is if [His Majesty], the King of Spain, the Empress Queen [Maria Theresa] and the King of Portugal would unite in order to engage the Pope to dissolve the order ofthe Jesuits . . . so that the said society no longer has either a general or members and that all these individuals return to the common law of their

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