18. WJ. Callahan, Church, politics, and society in Spain, 1750-1874 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984), p. 91.

19. A. Palmer, Alexander I: Tsar of war and peace (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1974), p. 236.

20. Troyat, Alexander of Russia, p. 241.

21. G. Young, The downfall of Napoleon and the deliverance of Europe (Whitby: R. Rodgers, 1814), pp. 18-19.

22. K. S. Pinson, Pietism as a factor in the rise of German nationalism (New York: Columbia University Press, i934), p. i95.

23. R. M. Bigler, Thepolitics of German Protestantism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), p. 30.

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