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contrast, the other areas of Europe, with the exception of Belgium, had not experienced the full force of the zealous de-Christianization campaign of the Revolution. Across Europe, Napoleon's religious policies wreaked havoc with local practices and provoked substantial resistance across classes and across both urban and rural populations. Some Protestant and Catholic elites, who had grown disillusioned with revolution, war, and the unmet promises of the Enlightenment, rejected Napoleon and embraced a new Christian romanticism, kindled by popular writers, such as Novalis or Chateaubriand. Even more widespread was the grassroots resistance of peasants from Spain to Italy to Tyrol who felt their very way of life threatened by Napoleonic cultural reforms. By unleashing widespread resentment, the emperor's religious policies played a crucial role in arousing opposition and contributed to his eventual downfall.

In the early 1800s, Napoleon anticipated that his aim of strengthening state control over churches and simplifying religious practice would win the support of secular princes and reform-minded administrators. In the Holy Roman Empire, the politics of religious reform became entangled with the complex issue of how to redraw territorial boundaries as the old empire was dismantled bit by bit. By the Treaty of Luneville in 1801, the prince-bishoprics were divided up between Napoleon and the German princes. Some territorial rulers welcomed the opportunity to appropriate monastic lands and to expand their state boundaries. Elector Max-Joseph of Bavaria had already undertaken a reformist agenda inspired by Joseph II of Austria; the Bavarian ruler and Maximilian von Montgelas, his Enlightenment-inspired minister, happily gobbled up smaller states, including Bamberg, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Freising, and Passau, as well as the Tyrol. Montgelas of Bavaria and Melzi d'Eril of Milan became prime examples of ministers bent on expediting secularization and restructuring church life, but many administrators from Württemberg to Naples pursued a similar set of goals.

For ordinary citizens, the Napoleonic religious reforms struck deep into popular customs and local social organization. The texture of religious life changed in many ways. Catholicism was now meant to be streamlined and centred on the parish church and the local clergyman. Authorities frequently reduced the number of parishes and closed down chapters, confraternity chapels, monasteries, and convents. In Italy, for example, the number of parishes declined from fifty-three to eighteen in Bologna and eighteen to six in Rimini. Disbanding abbeys, priories, and convents enabled state administrators to confiscate art and lands, move entire libraries to secular sites, and sell offvaluable properties. With their lives disrupted, monks and nuns were expected to return to their

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