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people know that these works are suffused with the language of Christian sentimentalism. At a critical point in Necker's first treatise, in which he extols the benefits of religious sentiment, he suggests that the French judicial system would work better if judges would stop abiding by the strict letter of the law and just consult their 'inner sentiments'. 'Innocence' would be better protected by 'the clear conscience' and 'sensitive clairvoyance' of an upright judge.46 The example of Necker thus points not only to the wider diffusion of Christian sentimentalism, but also to how it might have insinuated itself into the language of politics. Indeed, the sermons and writings of Enlightened Christians are another way that 'Rousseauean' sentimentalism was spread throughout France in the years leading up to the Revolution.


1. Paul Hazard, The European mind, 1680-1715, trans. J. May (New York: World Publishing Co., 1963), pp. xviii, 44-50; Peter Gay, The Enlightenment: The rise of modern paganism (New York: W W Norton & Company, 1967), p. 203.

2. J. G. A. Pocock, 'Enthusiasm: The antiself of Enlightenment', in Lawrence E. Klein and Anthony J. LaVopa (eds.), Enthusiasm and Enlightenment Europe, 1650-1850 (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1998), p. 7.

3. Stewart J. Brown, 'William Robertson (1721-1793) and the Scottish Enlightenment', in Stewart J. Brown (ed.), William Robertson and the expansion of empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 9.

4. As quoted by David Sorkin, '"A wise, enlightened and reliable piety": The religious Enlightenment in central and western Europe, 1689-1789', Parkes Institute Pamphlet 1, University of Southampton, 2002, p. 12.

5. Klein and La Vopa (eds.), Enthusiasm and Enlightenment; and Michael Heyd, 'Be sober and reasonable': The critique ofenthusiasm in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1995).

6. Gay, The Enlightenment, p. 203.

7. Quoted by Maria-Cristina Pitassi (ed.), Apologétique 1680-1740: sauvetage ou naufrage de la théologie? (Geneva: Labor et Fides, 1991), p. 101.

8. Maria-Cristina Pitassi, De l'Orthodoxie aux Lumières: Genève 1670-173 7 (Geneva: Labor et Fides, 1992), pp. 53-5.

9. Jacob Vernet, Instruction chretienne (Geneva: Henri-Albert Gosse & Comp., 1756), pp. 1112, 110.

10. Olivier Fatio, 'Le Christ des liturgies', in Maria-Cristina Pitassi (ed.), Le Christ entre Orthodoxie et Lumières. Actes du colloque tenu a Geneve en aout 1993 (Geneva: Droz, 1994), pp. 11-30.

11. Helena Rosenblatt, Rousseau and Geneva: From the first discourse to the social contract (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), esp. pp. 135-41 and 155-7.

12. David Sorkin, 'Reclaiming theology for the Enlightenment: The case of SiegmundJacob Baumgarten (1706-1757)', Central European history, 36 (2003), pp. 503-30; and Eric Carls-son, 'Enthusiasm, freethinking, and the Aufklarung's historical turn: Critical history as

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