Rites and the Mandarin Rites. Arriving in China in April 1705, de Tournon took as his advisor Charles Maigrot of the Societe des Missions Estrangeres de Paris. It was Maigrot who had reopened the matter of Confucian Christianity by banning Christians under his authority from participating in familial rites in 1693. When this was condemned in China by all save his colleagues in the Paris Society, Maigrot reopened the controversy in Europe by appealing to the Theology Faculty of the Sorbonne for support. The Kangxi emperor, meanwhile, treated the papal legate with courtesy and patience. His patience gave out, however, when he realized that the legate had come not for discussions but to bring to an end the 'ways of Li Madou'. He was infuriated when he discovered that the legate's advisor, Maigrot, could not easily read Mandarin and had read neither the Classics nor even Ricci's Tianzhu Shiyi. He expelled Maigrot and had the Portuguese imprison de Tournon at Macao.21 The emperor then decreed in 1706 that only missionaries who promised to follow the ways of Li Madou could obtain an Imperial biao without which they could not stay in China. Clement XI's bull, Ex illa die of 1715, then rendered the position of all priests, missionary and indigenous, impossible. The bull condemned the Mandarin Rites in careful detail and added a strongly worded oath that all Catholic clergy in China had to swear rejecting the traditions of Ricci under penalty of excommunication for refusal. Although appeals against this went on until the promulgation of Benedict XIV's bull, Ex quo singulari of 1742, ended the matter; the development of Confucian Christianity was over. Some twentieth-century scholars have questioned whether Ricci understood Confucianism; eighteenth-century Confucian scholars certainly believed he had. When members of the Confucian establishment on the orders of the emperor were putting together the massive official bibliographical compilation, the Ssuku Chuanshu ('The Complete Library of the Four Branches of Knowledge'), they included Ricci's Tianshu Shiyi!

Two Protestant missionaries, Robert Morrison (1782-1834) and Dr William Milne (1785-1822), began work in China before 1815. Serious and devoted men though they were, they contributed nothing positive towards a Christian-Confucian encounter. Their entirely negative attitude appears to have been well described by Milne: 'It is therefore absolutely necessary, before this nation can be truly virtuous and happy, that its veneration of ancient names be destroyed, or at least greatly weakened.'22

In reviewing the Christian encounter with other world religions during the period 1660 to 1815, the encounter with Islam can be summed up most readily: there was no religious encounter. Rather, it was a political encounter of two power blocks, the Christian and the Islamic worlds, regarding each other

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