This ever-more polarized Catholic fin-de-si├Ęcle precluded any productive pursuit of other more important items on the Augustinian reformist agenda, even supposing that Clement XIV had not died soon after the dissolution - if not by poison administered by Jesuits, as Jansenists everywhere believed, quite probably in chagrin. Although the primacy of the politics of anti-Jesuitism was supposed to have produced a papacy more open to a doctrinal course correction in an Augustinian direction, the effect was the opposite, producing in Pius VI a pontificate that would see the whole French Revolution through anti-Jansenist lenses. Among the casualties of the politics of postponement were such causes as the canonization of the seventeenth-century Spanish (and anti-Jesuit) bishop Juan de Palafox, the reunion with Rome of the appellant diocese of Utrecht, the revival of the Tridentine call for frequent councils and synods - and of course the abbe Clement's plan for a papal bull that would rid the church of the legacy of the Formulary and Unigenitus.

Having successfully exported her hitherto unique religious and political divisions to the rest of Catholic Europe at Italian invitation, France herself now embarked on new ones apropos of the Revolution's reform of the Gallican church known as the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. For the oath to it required by the National Assembly of all beneficed clergy in the new order was to divide the French clergy more evenly than had the Formulary and Uni-genitus, as well as to set the episcopate more resolutely against the state than parliamentary policy in the refusal of sacraments controversy and the trial of the Jesuits had done. The split became irreconcilable after Pius VI condemned the Civil Constitution as 'heretical' in i79i.While new enough, this rift nonetheless refracted pre-existent divisions over Jansenism that had not yet entirely disappeared and that, while now widespread in Catholic Europe, had still distinguished the Gallican clergy from most others during the campaign against the Jesuits. And although the Gallicanism at work in the formation of the Civil Constitution was more draconian than any pre-revolutionary precedent had been, the National Assembly nonetheless preferred the parlements' example of an internal secularization of an ecclesiastical corps as opposed to the external expulsions on the Iberian model. Except that in this case it was the dissolution of all contemplative monastic orders and the entire secular clergy as a corps.

Although parts of this reform were genuinely Jansenist in inspiration as well as being perceived as such by the Ultramontanist International, the Civil Constitution overshot the Jansenist agenda in several symptomatically 'encyclopaedic' ways, and came to divide what remained oftheJansenist community almost as badly as the Gallican clergy as a whole. The result was a cycle of clerical reaction and revolutionary anticlericalism that did not end until the

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