the religious settlements of neighbouring countries: in 1798, the English High Churchman Charles Daubeny, who more openly based the title of the English church on truth, equally ignored Scotland and Ireland.38

The 'established' church in Ireland thus lacked a powerful rationale for its public role; an alternative model, the idea of a 'Protestant Ascendancy', was not formulated until late in the century. Rural terrorist disturbances from the 1780s encouraged Richard Woodward, Bishop of Cloyne, to identify the Church of Ireland and its established status with the Protestant landowning interest. This formulation proved attractive to that social constituency but unappealing to a ministry in London which was seeking a broader base for Anglo-Irish co-existence: from 1791-92, the British government began to pursue the opposite policy of granting political rights to Irish Catholics.39 Woodward's new formulation was functional; yet even he recognized that the utilitarian aspect of Paley's rationale for established churches was 'subversive of the Protestant government of Ireland', and so, arguably, it proved to be.40

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