fell into disrepair and was abandoned, its functions absorbed into Nylander's other household responsibilities.

Nylander began to make headway with the mission only when he directed his attention to the country beyond the Freetown peninsula. On the Bulom Shore he commenced in 1818 the language work that was to distinguish Christianity's mission and encounter with modern Africa. He compiled a Bulom grammar and vocabulary, and translated Saint Matthew's Gospel into Bulom. It was the first Bible translation in Sierra Leone, although in 1801 the missionary Henry Brunton, then back in Scotland after a period of service in the African mission field, had published a Susu grammar and some catechisms.

With respect to the other two missionary companions of Nylander, a similar pattern can be discerned in their work. Johann Prasse went with Butscher and Melchio Renner to the Rio Pongas for work among the Susu, following the new CMS doctrine that metropolitan Freetown was an inauspicious environment for mission, and accordingly shifting the focus to indigenous hinterland populations. It was a policy change representing a quiet but momentous repudiation of Christianity and civilization as identical twins, and it ran counter to prevailing settler opinion about the irredeemability of uncivilized 'tribes' so-called. Butscher eventually returned in 1814 to Freetown to head a settlement of new re-captives in Leicester.

Butscher's experiences from living among the Susus led him to formulate some sharp ideas about the deep impact of the slave trade on societies beyond the coast, and the facilitating but limited role of colonial guardianship. What he said onthe subject had echoes, for example, ofideas in ancient Roman north Africa, and yet it was also in a significant measure in advance of his time. It was not till 1837, when Thomas Fowell Buxton (1786-1845) published his much acclaimed The slave trade and its remedy, that belated attention was drawn to what Butscher had described as far back as 1812. From his experience, Butscher said the slave trade was the most important source of income for inland societies and that the recent abolition had threatened the very foundation of their economic survival. Seizing slaves on the high seas, as was the policy of the British government, did not strike at the root cause of enslavement; what was needed, Butscher said, was an export commodity that could profitably and effectively replace slaves as a commodity. It should therefore be the single most urgent objective of missions and governments alike to develop an alternative source of wealth for African societies. Butscher, accordingly, set about seeking to secure the support and co-operation of government authorities, thus suggesting a strong partnership between mission and government, with

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