whole, its history, culture, and religion. In these movements, Christianity became linked to emerging nationalist fervour. The popular revolt against French dominance that began in Madrid in May 1808 and quickly spread across Spain employed the imagery of the crusade - with supporters comparing it to the medieval struggle for the liberation of Christian Spain from the Moors. Members of the clergy, and especially friars and monks, were active in the fighting; indeed some battalions were made up entirely of monks or friars. Franciscans defended heroically a key fort during the siege of Gerona, and Franciscans commanded guerrilla units in the hills. Bishops of the church in Spain presided over many of the local juntas set up to co-ordinate resistance. Priests portrayed Napoleon in Old Testament terms as a 'lash ofpunishment' from God, meant to summon the Spanish nation to righteousness, so that a repentant Spain could fulfil its destiny as God's chosen people of the Christian era. Preaching at a memorial service in 1809 in Cervera for the victims of the rising, a priest assured his congregation that in the midst of the present 'terrible convulsions, a golden century of prosperity and grandeur will be born'. 'May God', he added, 'finish this great work'.18 In December 1808, Napoleon described the Spanish rising as 'an insurrection of monks' and French troops took murderous reprisals upon the Spanish clergy. This created martyrs and strengthened popular loyalty to the church. Catholicism was also a vital element in the peasant rising against French control in the Tyrol in the summer of 1809. Andreas Hofer, the leader of the rising, proclaimed that it was a struggle for 'God, Emperor and Fatherland', while a Capuchin friar, Joachim Haspringer, commanded part of Hofer's peasant army. In 1809, the pope resisted with a bull of excommunication the incorporation of the Papal States into the French Empire. In consequence he was arrested and eventually removed to France. His courageous refusal to submit to Napoleon's demands enhanced the popular image of the papacy across Catholic Europe.
When Napoleon's grand army invaded Russia in June 1812, the Tsar proclaimed the struggle 'a national Holy War for the Fatherland' while popular rage over the devastation wreaked by the invaders on churches and icons contributed to the resistance.19 On the day before the battle of Borodino, when the Russian army confronted the Napoleonic forces outside Moscow, a solemn procession of priests and chanters moved along the Russian line, carrying on white linen bands the centuries-old icon of the Mother of God, rescued from the destruction of Smolensk. Soldiers, including the Russian commander, Marshall Kutusov, fell to their knees as the procession passed. During these bitter months, Tsar Alexander, who had been raised in the scepticism and anticleri-calism prevalent in the later Enlightenment, experienced something akin to a
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