in the 1790s with the aim of instilling Christian virtues among the labouring orders, had a massive distribution. In Scotland and Ireland, evangelical parties grew in influence within the established churches from the 1790s. The conversion of Thomas Chalmers in 1811 produced an impassioned and highly influential evangelical preacher within the Church of Scotland. The 1790s also witnessed the beginning of the modern British overseas mission movement, with the formation of the Baptist Missionary Society in 1792, the London Missionary Society in 1795, and the Church Missionary Society in 1799. The Baptist shoemaker and preacher, William Carey, proclaimed in 1792 that Christians were under an obligation to bring the gospel immediately to all the world, including distant lands sunk 'in the most deplorable state of heathen darkness'8; within a year, he sailed to India as a missionary.

There was heightened Protestant evangelical activity elsewhere in Europe, much of it, as in Britain, driven by the laity and occurring outside the established churches. In Protestant Germany, Pietist communities viewed the French Revolution as the fruit of the false philosophies of the Enlightenment, as a judgement of God upon a corrupt social and religious order, and as a divine call for social regeneration. Pietism, which for much of the eighteenth century had been restricted to conservative, inward-looking groups of the nobility and upper bourgeoisie - the 'quiet voices in the land' - became more assertive in the 1790s, more ready to challenge the existing order in church and state, and to evangelize among artisans and peasants. In W├╝rttemberg, the ascetic Pietist lay evangelist of peasant background, Johann Michael Hahn, gathered a large, mainly peasant following in the 1790s and began organizing his converts on a congregational pattern outside the established church. The preaching of Christian Gottlob Pregizer led in the same decade to the formation of conventicles of fervent hymn-singing converts, known as the 'Hurrah Christians', located mainly in the Black Forest. By 1800, more than fifty voluntary Christian societies had been established in W├╝rttemberg. Pietist evangelical outreach was also promoted by the Christianity Society (ChristentumgeseUschaJt) which had been founded in 1780 in Basel for the purpose of providing charity and supporting evangelism. During the 1790s it established branch societies in Swiss and German towns and cities, and became active in circulating Christian tracts. In Berlin, the saintly Moravian preacher, Johannes Janicke, gathered a considerable following, especially among pious aristocrats, with his simple, humble, and emotional preaching; in 1800, he founded a school in Berlin for the training of missionaries. The revival movement was stimulated by the warm, emotional writings of the Pietist layman, Johann Heinrich Jung-Stilling, Christian mystic, physician, professor of economics, and councillor to the Grand

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