passionate did some of them become that British and some loyalist colonials occasionally sneered that the Revolution was simply a Presbyterian war.
Others of the Scots-Irish were influenced by a particular movement called the Scottish Enlightenment, which fed teachers and tutors to the colonies. Among them were those who taught founding fathers such as James Madison. They also prepared potential leaders among them to attend and excel at the College of New Jersey, which became Princeton University. The most influential of these leaders was John Witherspoon, who successfully blended a staunch Calvinist faith with a new-found faith in reason and science that came with that Scottish Enlightenment background. He and his colleagues helped provide rationales for opposing the crown, figuratively deposing the king, and composing a constitutional republic. Witherspoon himself became a signer of the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
As a result of the Awakening and the growth of dissent in New England under Baptist leaders like the influential Isaac Backus, critics ofthe established churches divided congregation after congregation. Backus asked how Congre-gationalists could complain of'taxation without representation' by the British parliament without noticing that they were guilty of establishing such a policy over against tax-resistant Baptists and other dissenters. Many of these, to put the seal of dissent on their practices, refused to pay taxes - Backus once went to jail for this - and also would not baptize infants. Rather, they delayed baptism until children became sufficiently adult to make their own profession of faith. This practice both made them unwelcome in settled Congregational New England and convinced many to move to Virginia and elsewhere in the south. There they converted many of their neighbours to the Baptist cause and, along with this cause, they spread dissent against church establishments. Thus the orthodox Baptist elder John Leland both converted souls and campaigned at the side of Thomas Jefferson for new laws that later led to disestablishment of Anglicanism and the assurance of religious freedom in Virginia.
The Methodists, another new force on the scene between 1765 and 1815, were not unambiguous in support of Revolution. They had represented a revitalized group within Anglicanism in England under the leadership of John Wesley and his colleagues, but had then gone their separate way. With their highly evangelical faith, they felt called to convert the colonials to Methodism, but had found only a toe-hold when the war broke out. Many, being devoted to the crown, shared the discomfort of mainstream Anglicans. Some returned to England or remained hardly visible as a church movement until after the war. However, after they organized as a body in Baltimore in 1784 and with leadership personified by the energetic missionary and administrator Francis
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