latitudinarian divines, especially those of Samuel Clarke and Benjamin Hoadly. The English Dissenting tradition, mediated principally through the works of Isaac Watts and Philip Doddridge, was also important to Dutch tolerationists; Watts and Doddridge contributed to toleration in the United Provinces by providing a form of individualized piety that undermined confessional authority. The Dutch cited the English (and Swiss) defenders of religious liberty, not because their arguments were novel, but to give their views an added moral authority that was located outside the United Provinces.25

During the debate over introducing Anglican bishops into the North American colonies, English Nonconformists corresponded avidly with Congrega-tionalists in New England. In Ireland the Presbyterian struggle against the Test Act drew inspiration from English Nonconformists. Some tenuous links have been discovered between the Scottish seceders, the Cambuslang revivals, and defenders of toleration in the United Provinces. During the American Revolution, Old Light and New Light Presbyterians (known formerly as 'non-subscribers' to the Westminster Confession) united with Old Light Presbyterians in support of American independence, and from 1791 Ulster Presbyterians also contributed to the short-lived alliance between Irish Protestants and Catholics for an independent Irish republic. In addition, there is considerable evidence of fraternal regard among the denominations at the local level in England. But none of these efforts actually resulted in the forging of formal institutional ties. Indeed, with the advent of Methodism and the growth of the Unitarian movement, Nonconformity in England became increasingly fragmented.

Toleration in the North American British colonies

In the British colonies at the time of the American Revolution, only Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and parts of New York legally guaranteed religious liberty. Pennsylvania still required a religious test for office-holders, while Rhode Island withheld the franchise from Jews. Eight colonies had some form of religious establishment at the onset of the war, and three New England states retained Congregational establishments well into the nineteenth century. In four of the five southern colonies, the Revolution undermined an already weak Anglican establishment. In the fifth, Virginia, the protracted debate over religious liberty between 1776 and 1786 had far-reaching implications because it bore directly upon the national government and the Constitution of the United States.

Presbyterians and Baptists in Virginia had enjoyed substantial growth during the later stages of the Great Awakening, while the conflict with England

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