revival also reflected a Calvinist hankering for a godly commonwealth, a single communal profession of religion on the basis of Reformed standards, and this too was exportedbackto Scotland. Here, perhaps alone in Europe, revival and Reformed Orthodoxy were not easily separated in anyone's mind. By the early eighteenth century, however, both revival and Orthodoxy had waned among Irish Presbyterians. Irish Presbyterian ministers educated in Glasgow began to respond to the Age of Reason, and in 1726 they formed in Ireland a schismatic Antrim Presbytery, which refused to subscribe to the Reformed Orthodoxy of the Westminster Confession of Faith. The Orthodox Irish Presbyterians bitterly opposed these non-subscribing Presbyterians, many of whom were Arians, embracing a rational faith emphasizing morality and moderation. They insisted that Presbyterian ministers must subscribe to the Westminster Confession. This conflict in Irish Presbyterianism was speedily replicated in Pennsylvania, where it became complicated by the famous feuds fought by the Tennent family of Irish Presbyterian revivalists, the most important member of whom, Gilbert Tennent, had been decisively influenced by Frelinghuysen. The American Presbyteries on the whole had adopted a lax attitude to the Westminster Confession of Faith by the early eighteenth century. However, in response to the unrest stirred by the Tennents, many moderate Presbyterians in the Philadelphia Synod now hoped that required subscription to the Westminster Confession might be used to contain the revivalists and preserve unity within the church. Any hope of this was destroyed by the great revival led by Whitefield in 1739-40, and Gilbert Tennent's ferocious attack on unconverted ministers. The Philadelphia Synod broke up in 1741, the revivalist 'New Side' forming their own New York Synod. At this point Zinzendorf arrived in America, frightening Tennent, who then began to broach the possibility of Presbyterian reunion. In 1758, the severed wings of the Ulster tradition were reunited as communion was restored between the synods of New York and Philadelphia.
New England, the home, par excellence, of the Great Awakening, faced its religious problems with self-conscious assertions of its European character. Continued English immigration brought the Church of England on the eve of the American Revolution to its peak strength, and hoary rumours that a bishop was to be created for America excited unpleasant frissons. Anglicanism was attractive to those who thought that American disorder required the wholesale adoption of metropolitan institutions, and those who were tired of the 'insufferable enthusiastic whims' of the Whitefieldites. And there was a palpable threat from England's European enemy, France, and its client Indians. There were also pastoral problems. A church polity that had originally been
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