with bugles analogica, tragica, rustica, and clementina; a Protestant sounded trumpets of national penance with equal zeal.

Prolonging a deeply rooted medieval habit, confessional preachers of any provenance - Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist - relished allegories, deeper meanings, symbols, types, and emblems. Hence the 'emblematic sermon', so popular in the German-speaking world, which made graphic use of numerous images and similes to internalize the emblem's meaning in the hearer. One of the best-known representatives in this tradition was the Viennese court preacher and Augustinian Abraham a Sancta Clara (Johann Ulrich Megerle, 1644-1709), whose sermons, couched in popular language, were notably rich in imagery, wit, wordplay, anagrams, anecdotes, and emblems. Lutheran preachers, too, employed the emblematic form. In a sermon comparing the Lord's Prayer to a well-built edifice, Valentin Ernst Loscher (1674-1749) led his audience through the court, the chapel, the chancery, the loft and the armory, as so many metaphors of the various supplications contained in this exposition.17 Doctrinal, liturgical, and scholarly traditions informed the confessional sermon to a large extent - so much so that in Catholic sermons until the end of the eighteenth century, biblical texts often fulfilled the same purpose as stories, fables and examples, or folk tales about sinners chastised, prayers answered and miracles performed, or accounts of witches and devils and giants and water spirits, or the histories of mottos and proverbs, or farces in which various social ranks or domestic relationships were ridiculed with a view to moral instruction.18 Only with the reforms of the Bavarian bishop Johann Michael Sailer (1751-1832) did Catholic sermons become more unequivocally oriented towards the Bible.

In Spain, the species of confessional sermon is represented by the 'concetto' sermon. Divided into numerous paragraphs or articles, the concetto sermon exploited unusual chains of thought, antitheses, word play and novel imagery in an intricate oratorical design replete with digressions and byways. The convoluted but coherent architecture of this species of sermon helped listeners and readers to grasp religious truths by leading them to the intended destination along unexpected paths. The concetto sermon, introduced into Italy via Naples, thrived well into the eighteenth century; it was popular but clearly required substantial effort to produce, and where talent was lacking it deteriorated into displays of tortuous wit and vain learning. In his picaresque novel Historia delfamoso predicador Fray Gerundio de Campazas, alias Zotes (1758), the Jesuit Jose Francisco de Isla (1703-81) satirized what he regarded as the degenerate and tasteless preaching of his day. The book, which gave rise to the derogatory epithet, gerundianismo, for such contrived sermons, was outlawed

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