home from Georgia with a broad world-view and a knowledge of the continental church-situation which he had not had before. Once back in England, he encountered the most public of the policy failures of the eighteenth-century church - Bishop Edmund Gibson's humiliating repudiation of his alliance with the Whig party. Only private enterprise, it seemed, could now save the Church of England, and only the Tory-country-party alliance, bent on circumscribing the powers of the Hanoverian court, could provide a sympathetic political milieu. Wesley had taken a great deal of high-church and mystical baggage with him to Georgia in 1735, and had there initiated himself into the practical theology of almost every Lutheran school and of Tersteegen as well. He could only prune this excess of devotion by conversion; the pattern to hand was that of Moravianism, and the occasion was likely to be 'while one was reading Luther's Preface to the Romans' as was now nearly compulsory on the continent. It took time for even conversion to see Wesley through the maze. He quickly broke up the Fetter Lane society where he had been converted, and took the side of Halle in the great European conflict with Moravianism; so did Whitefield with his practical interest in orphan-house management. Both were drawn into the Methodist circle around the Countess of Huntingdon, who hoped for a fundamental reform of church and state once the present court of George II was succeeded by the Leicester House entourage of Frederick, Prince of Wales. This dream was ended by the accidental death of Frederick in 1751.

The British revival began first in Wales, where a sustained campaign by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) to assimilate Wales to the English language, culture and religious establishment, generated by reaction a religious revival which ended by being Welsh, evangelical and Dissenting. A key figure in the Welsh revival was the Anglican rector of Llanddowror, Griffith Jones, who recognized that as any such Welsh assimilation was only conceivable in the very long term, it was futile to make the Welsh drag through their devotional exercises in English. So he trained schoolmasters in his parish at Llanddowror, and circulated them around Wales during the winter season of slack employment to teach pupils to read the Welsh Bible and learn the church catechism. Jones's scheme (publicized under the Hallesian title of 'Welch Piety') was an instant success, and by the time Jones died, 3,495 circulating schools had been set up in Wales, and over 158,000 scholars had passed through them. The SPCK also poured an immense quantity of literature, mainly devotional, into Wales. Most of this was targeted at heads of families. In 1695, some 44 per cent of the Welsh population were reckoned to be under the age of sixteen, so the heads of families occupied a priestly

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