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the clergy. Overall, he favoured the return to worship and proved to be an adept overseer of the new alignment between church and state. He urged local authorities as well as the other government ministries to reduce their interference in parish affairs and he allowed working clergy a certain, limited independence from the state. For example, they were permitted to deny the sacraments as they judged necessary and to refuse remarriage to divorced individuals. The Ministry also managed the growing budget that paid clerical salaries and aided Catholics by providing scholarships for seminarians and stipends for novices of the growing female congregations.

In a nutshell, the Concordat facilitated the recovery from the religious conflicts of the 1790s and ushered in a new era in the relations between church and state. In the secular state that emerged from the Revolution, the clergy became salaried civil servants. They no longer held their privileged, corporate status and their own endowed lands as under the ancien re├ęgime. Napoleon sought to garner ceremonial as well as social support from Catholicism: in 1804, he successfully pressured Pope Pius VII into participating in his elaborate coronation ceremony at Notre Dame in Paris. Yet, although Bonaparte worked to forge a new kind of Gallicanism and an imperial alliance between throne and altar, in the long term the Concordat and Napoleon's religious manoeuvres helped to foster the ultramontanism of the French Catholic Church.

The Organic Articles also regularized the position ofProtestants and offered an unprecedented degree of official recognition to the two dominant groups of Protestants, the Lutherans and Calvinists (Reformed Church). Smaller Protestant sects, like the Mennonites or Methodists, were not recognized but were unofficially tolerated. The state paid and supervised Lutheran and Reformed ministers. Lutheran communities were concentrated for the most part in eastern France and the Rhineland. The Ministry of Religion worked out a hierarchical structure for their religious governance: a central 'general consistory' in Strasbourg presided over local parishes and included several appointees by the First Consul. Calvinists were geographically more widespread, living mainly in a crescent that ran south from the Charente across the Midi up to the Drome. The Articles deprived the Reformed Church of its pyramidal system of synods and local self-governance. Mistrusting Calvinist traditions of communal autonomy, Napoleon sought to create rationalized ecclesiastical boundaries and institutions that paralleled department structures and reinforced social hierarchy. Synods required the Ministry's permission in order to assemble. In the name of social stability, the Articles stipulated that six to eight notables of a certain stature would join pastors in forming consistories. Each consistory would govern a group of 6,000 or more souls and oversee the appointment of

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