Church in America. Greater doctrinal confusion developed among the German settlers in Pennsylvania who by the time of the War of Independence numbered almost half the population of the colony. The early settlers had been refugees from European persecution, but the bulk had gone to America in search of prosperity, and these economic refugees had no objection to re-creating the Lutheran and Reformed churches they had left behind. The problem was that they had come from many different Lutheran and Reformed churches, and spoke many different dialects, which they grafted variously on to a pidgin English. Confessional identity collapsed; almost half the churches built were union churches and their clergy tended to be appointed on freemarket principles. Yet the Lutheran and Reformed churches in Pennsylvania withstood revival, when it came, better than the establishments in Europe, and even better than their English-language counterparts in America, the Anglicans and Presbyterians. Everyone from Whitefield onwards regarded the fragmented Pennsylvania Germans as a single cultural entity ripe for unification. In December 1741, Zinzendorf arrived in Philadelphia, ostensibly to take up a pastoral appointment, but actually to offer his own Moravian Brethren movement as a catalyst for unity. The German settlers were not susceptible to Zinzendorf's seigniorial attitudes. Francke's son, meanwhile, had been given an unmistakable signal to find money for an American mission. As well as money, Francke also sent a clergymen, Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, who came straight from running the Orphan House created by Zinzendorf's estranged aunt, Henriette von Gersdorf. Tough rather than theologically refined, Muhlenberg understood that his business in America (like that of the Pietists at Teschen in Silesia) was to revive a faith which had been neglected or perverted - and to do so with the usual accompaniments of heightened emotion and tears, and by the sort of itinerant ministry that was obligatory in America for all clergy outside New England. His reward, a total of 126 congregations gathered by 1776, would not have disgraced a revivalist anywhere. And largely because his friends in Halle maintained a supply of clergy ofmonochrome Hallesian views the church did not experience division or schism as a result of its revival. The classis of Amsterdam, meanwhile, followed suit by sending an energetic Swiss, Michael Schlatter, to organize and revive the Reformed Church in America.

The cantankerous Scots-Irish who flooded into the Pennsylvania back-country were less easily settled. In Ireland, revival had emerged in the 1620s among Scottish settlers in Ulster as a Presbyterian response to early Stuart policies aimed at achieving religious uniformity under the Anglican establishment. The revival had been exported back to Scotland by 1625. The Ulster

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