academic purposes, and Molinos and Arndt were significant in his conversion. Makarius the Egyptian was not just one of the more implausible pieces ofbag-gage taken by Wesley in 1735 to Georgia, he was a major item in the Protestant rediscovery of mysticism. Much the same can be said of the Lives of M. de Renty and Gregory Lopez, versions of which Wesley published, and to which he was deeply indebted. If Wesley could never quite swallow the mystic way whole, he could also never spit it out. The clashes with church authority suffered by the Flemish mystical writer, Antoinette Bourignon, and French Quietist author, Madame Guyon, attracted the attention of the whole Pietist world to the Quietists. The French Protestant student of mysticism, Pierre Poiret, produced comprehensive editions of both authors, as well as collecting the Counter-Reformation materials which the German Pietist, Gerhard Terstee-gen, turned into three volumes of Select Lives of Holy Souls (1734-56). Molinos's message that Christianity must be simpler than the endless multiplication of devotions created during the Counter-Reformation, and the insistence of the Quietists (who were all philosophical voluntarists) that the fundamental problem was that of harmonizing the will of man with the will of God, even engulfing the one in the other, sank deep. Jonathan Edwards's great effort to incorporate creation into the work of redemption was aided by his mystical devotion to beauty. Edwards's saint, like that of every other Reformed theologian, is a pilgrim, but not a 'pilgrim through this barren land'. The saints, he declared, 'do not first see that God loves them, and then see that he is lovely; but they first see that God is lovely, and that Christ is excellent and glorious; their hearts are first captivated with this view'. Genuine and gracious affections have 'beautiful symmetry and proportion' as they did in David Brainerd, and as they emerged in the New Birth.2 The evangelical peddlers of Catholic spirituality were not acting as middlemen between Catholic and Protestant; rather, they were feeding an unsatisfied Protestant market with Catholic fare. The implication of this was that the future of mysticism within evangelicalism could not be severed from its fate in the Roman Catholic Church. Unfortunately the unholy alliance between Louis XIV and the papacy to put down Jansenism which radically undermined the entire system of the ancien regime in France also produced the papal condemnations of Molinos; and the spiritual writer, Francois Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambrai, put the Quietists through the mill, and made it impossible in France to produce books with the word 'mysticism' in the title. A movement now in mortal decline no longer produced durable accounts of religious experience, but encyclopaedias, treatises, manuals, which were given a scientific character by appearing in Latin; the declining field was propped up by the creation of chairs in Carmelite colleges, and the
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