In July 1814, he met the Pietist mystic, Jung-Stilling, who urged him to take up the cause of Europe's salvation. Then on 4 June 1815, two weeks before the allies' final victory over Napoleonic France at Waterloo, the Tsar met the Baroness de Kr├╝dener in curious circumstances at Heilbronn. He had been alone reading Scripture when he recalled hearing reports of the prophetess. As he did so, he was suddenly informed that she had arrived at the house seeking an audience. Believing her arrival to be a message from God, the Tsar closeted with her for three hours, listening intently to her assurances that he was chosen by God to lead the nations of Europe to a new Christian dispensation. The Baroness followed him in his subsequent movements to Heidelberg and Paris, and the two met regularly, usually clandestinely at night, for prayer and the study of prophecy. Under her influence, Alexander revived an idea for a European league of nations that he had first outlined in 1804. He now combined this league with a vision of revived Christendom to form the idea of the Holy Alliance. After September 1815, most of the European states - led by Russia, Austria, and Prussia - subscribed 'in the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity' to the treaty of three articles, pledging to govern according to the 'Principles of the Christian Religion', to pursue their relations with one another in a spirit of Christian love, and to promote Christian teachings among their peoples.

Christianity and the Restoration

With the end ofthe Napoleonic Wars came moves to strengthen the alliance of church and state, of throne and altar, throughout Europe. The fall of Napoleon was accompanied by efforts to place 'legitimate' rulers back on their thrones and to restore social hierarchies. Political leaders working to restore the old order looked to the churches to denounce the 'principles of 1789', to instruct the common people in patient acceptance of their place within the social hierarchy and to alleviate social tensions by providing charity and caring for war widows and orphans. The churches were to teach that authority in this world came, not from the people, but from God, and that it was communicated from above through divinely ordained rulers. Their message for Restoration Europe became less one of popular empowerment and liberation, and more one of human sinfulness and the need for order. For some politicians, to be sure, these appeals to Christian sentiment were a calculated means ofrestoring hierarchies ofwealth andpower. But there was also much genuine belief among such rulers as Tsar Alexander, Frederick William III of Prussia and Francis I of Austria. The churches for their part looked to the restored European rulers

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