when Clement XIII cut the knot of a sharply split Congregation of Cardinals of the Holy Office, and, with Torrigiani's help, fulminated a brief condemning the French Jansenist Francois-Philippe Mesenguy's Exposition of Christian Doctrine on the occasion of its publication in Italian translation in Naples. 'It is finally consummated, this mystery of iniquity', reacted Bottari apoplectically if not apocalyptically in the wake of Cardinal Passionei's literally apoplectic seizure upon being obliged to subscribe to the brief as a member of the congregation. The first papal judgement against Jansenism that France had not asked for - and another factor in Choiseul's animus against the Jesuits - the brief against Mesenguy's catechism was, in Bottari's estimate, the Unigenitus of Italian Augustinians, evidence that 'the Jesuits were determined to use that book, as they did that of Quesnel, in order to light the fire [of discord] in Italy'.14 A self-confirming judgement this was, inasmuch as it caused Bottari and other Italian Augustinians to cut their losses with the Curia and refashion themselves as full-fledged Jansenists in the radicalized Gallican mode.

While the effect of anti-Jesuit action and curial reaction was to transform Italian Augustinians into GallicanJansenists in Italy, the immediate effect in France was further to transform Gallican bishops into ultramontanist defenders of the Jesuits in the absence of the relatively Gallican French Jesuits themselves. '[S]o long as the [French] bishops remain Molinists, France will know no peace', observed an ever more exasperated Bottari, who, seeing his anti-Jesuit strategy go astray, announced himself fully prepared to see 'the upcoming Assembly of Gallican Clergy [of 1765] endorse the [probabilistic] propositions that it had condemned in 1700'.15 Worse yet, the 'curialization' of the clergy so deplored by Bottari in France began to spread by degrees to the rest of Catholic Europe and to Italy in particular in reaction to the campaign against the Jesuits. For events in the 1760s were to prove decisive in the transformation of hitherto reformist and philo-Jansenist prelates - Christoph Bartholomaus Migazzi in Austria, Carlo Amadeo Vittorio Delle Lanze in Piedmont, Johann Heinrich Frankenberg in the Austrian Netherlands, to name just a few-into determined defenders of papal authority and the future militants in an anti-Jansenist (and later still, anti-revolutionary) counter-offensive. To be sure, the end of the Jesuits was eventually and temporarily to bring religious 'peace' of a sort to France - a 'peace' born of fatigue and religious indifference, however, rather than the one the Jansenists had hoped for. But for the rest of Catholic Europe, the effect of the campaign against the Jesuits was ironically to import the hitherto mainly French 'fire of discord', as a Jansenist International squared off against an increasingly militant Ultramontanist International in the decades preceding the French Revolution.

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