1. Quoted in Nigel Aston, Religion and revolution in France, 1780-1804 (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2000), p. 288.

2. Quoted in Claude Langlois and Timothy Tackett, 'A l'epreuve de la Revolution (17701830)', in François Lebrun (ed.), Histoire des Catholiques en France du XVe siècle a nos jours (Toulouse: Privat, 1980), p. 265.

3. Citations from Suzanne Desan, Reclaiming the sacred: Lay religion and popular politics in revolutionary France (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990), chap. 4; and Andre Latreille, L'Eglise catholique et la Revolution française, 2 vols. (Paris: Hachette, 1946-50), vol. i,p. 224.

4. Cited in Jean-Claude Meyer 'Les reactions populaires a la lutte antireligieuse menee en Haute-Garonne', in Bernard Plongeron (ed.), Pratiques religieuses dans l'Europe revolutionnaire (1770-1820). Actes du colloque a Chantilly, 27-29 novembre 1986 (Paris: Brepols, i988), p. 34i.

5. My emphasis. Archives nationales, F7 7424, letter from cure Tronchoy to the cantonal administration in Epineuil, 20 Ventose An VI (10 March 1798).

6. Cited in Ralph Gibson, A social history of French Catholicism, 1789-1914 (London: Rout-ledge, 1989), p. 47, and Martin Lyons, Napoleon Bonaparte and the legacy of the French Revolution (New York: St Martin's Press, 1994), p. 83.

7. Frederic Cople Jaher, The Jews and the nation: Revolution, emancipation, state formation, and the liberal paradigm in America and France (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), p. 121. See also Ronald Schechter, Obstinate Hebrews: Representations of Jews in France, 1715-1815 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), chap. 6.

8. Cited in Jacques-Olivier Boudon, Napoleon et les cultes. Les religions en Europe a l'aube du XIXe siècle, 1800-1815 (Paris: Fayard, 2002), p. 100.

9. Aston, Religion and revolution, p. 345.

10. Citations from Nigel Aston, Christianity and revolutionary Europe, c. 1750-1830 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 282-3; Stuart Woolf, Napoleon's integration ofEurope (London: Routledge, i99i), pp. 206-7.

11. Woolf, Napoleon's integration of Europe, pp. 210-11.

12. Michael Broers, The politics of religionin Napoleonic Italy: The war against God, 1801-1814 (London: Routledge, 2002), p. 80.

13. Quoted in Boudon, Napoléon et les cultes, pp. 241-2.

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