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all the four Hindu Vedas while Francis Pons (1698-1752) was an astronomer, geographer, canonist, and a Sanskrit scholar who composed a Sanskrit grammar.

Non-Jesuit religious orders and congregations also did commendable work but on a much smaller scale, given their limited numbers and paucity of funds. The activities of the Franciscans during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were directed more towards consolidation than expansion. By 1629 they had two provinces in India, with about 600 friars. They had houses in Goa and also in Bassein, and their houses suffered under Maratha attacks in the eighteenth century. In 1766 they had to withdraw from the parishes they had held in the Bardez area of Goa, handing them over to local Goan secular priests who had become very numerous by that time and who were eager to run the parishes.

After their arrival in Goa in 1548 the Dominicans also set up houses at Bassein, Mahim, Tarapur, Chaul, Daman, Diu, Cochin, Nagapatanam, and Mylapore, all coastal towns on the west and east coasts of India. They were subsequently able to expand their missions to Mozambique and to Malacca, and to the islands of Timor and Solor in Indonesia. The Augustinians were the last to arrive in Goa, establishing the college of Our Lady of Grace after September 1572. From 1599 they expanded into Bengal, the region which they viewed as their most successful missionary field. They also worked in Persia and on the east coast of Africa.

Other religious orders, including the Carmelites, the Capuchins, and the Theatines, arrivedinthe course ofthe seventeenth century. They worked under the direct supervision of the Propaganda and had jurisdictional difficulties with the Portuguese. The Carmelites had charge ofthe vicariates of Malabar and the Great Mughal. The Capuchins worked in Surat, Madras and Pondicherry, and the Theatines served in Golconda. Under the Padroado regime of Goa, there were both Portuguese and Goan priests. Under the Roman Propaganda system, there were vicars apostolic in Bombay, Kerala, Pondicherry, and Tibet. Italian Carmelites served in Bombay and Kerala; French Capuchins and secular priests of the Société des Missions Estrangéres in Tamilnadu; French Capuchins in Madras and Italian Capuchins in north India. The Theatines (Clerics Regular of Divine Providence of St Cajetan) were also present in Goa, although they lacked funds and personnel in comparison with other orders. However, the Oratory of the Holy Cross of Miracles, founded in Goa in 1682 and patterned on the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri, grew to be an influential body, especially as it was the first religious congregation made up of clerics of local origin. Though all of these orders and congregations were engaged in the

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