the 108 towns where they were established - an average of a quarter of all boys between seven and fourteen, rising to as high as 40 per cent in towns of less than 10,000 inhabitants. Clearly, the effects of the Brothers' method extended well beyond the institutions themselves.

A second point concerns the professionalization of teaching at the primary school level. At the beginning of the early modern period a dynastic system of teacher training still held sway, where the son succeeded the father, from whom he received his apprenticeship in the basic classroom functions and tasks. But by the end of the seventeenth century, both Protestants and Catholics began to show interest in professional teacher training. Here again, the Pietists played an important role as initiators. Amongthe various seminariapraeceptorum founded in Halle by Francke was the Institut der Praeparandie, created in 1717 with the aim of training future primary school teachers for the various Halle schools. The impact of this creation was felt beyond Halle, when pastors Christoph Schinmeyer and Johann Julius Hecker endeavoured to establish 'seminaries' on the same model, respectively in Stetin (1732-37) and Berlin (1748). In 1753, the latter was recognized as a 'Seminary for sacristans and schoolmasters in villages of the royal electorate domain'. It admitted both regular boarding students and poor craftsmen who attended vocational training courses for a few weeks or months outside their regular work. Nevertheless, the impact and effectiveness of such initiatives were limited, since they remained somewhat private and local, closely linked to the specific needs of the institutions that created them.8 On the Catholic side, the secular institution for primary school teachers founded by La Salle for the Christian Brothers had two original features by comparison with religious orders: the Brothers were forbidden to study Latin or to enter the clergy. This double ban preserved a relatively 'popular' recruitment of those joining the Brothers and prevented a drift towards a form of 'secondary' teaching for the elites - as occurred with some religious orders like the Piarists towards the end of the eighteenth century. The Brothers were recruited from the best of the schools' pupils, those who were 'intelligent and of a pious disposition, and who, when judged ready to do so, were themselves prepared to enter the community'. For this teaching corps of modest origins - intermediaries between the ecclesiastical authorities and the laity who was to be instructed and edified - it was necessary to create a way of life that distinguished them clearly from the general population. The 'Rules of Propriety and Christian Civility' were written to instil in the Brothers (described as 'all laymen, uneducated and with average intelligence at best') a social behaviour which they would then transmit to their pupils: the 'modesty' demanded by Christian morality and requisite to their position; and a control

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