holders of these chairs produced summas. Barred from university and church, mysticism sought refuge in informal gatherings, class meetings, lodges, Temples of Wisdom. Thus the evangelicals, especially those in the west who drew heavily from the more recent mystical and Quietist literature, were deriving nourishment from a movement in decay, a movement now 'textbookized' so thoroughly that it had lost its earlier appeal as a dynamo of red-hot religious experience.
For Protestants there were two other concerns. First, professional mysticism was a product of the leisure industry, and leisure was somewhat abhorrent to evangelicals. Jonathan Edwards spoke for them all, when he insisted that holiness 'consists not only in contemplation and a mere passive enjoyment, but very much in action'.3 Though Wesley recommended the Quietist writers (especially to ladies) he would warn against their dangers in the same breath, and at the end of his life he was purging 'mysticism' from his brother's hymns. Second, there were doctrinal difficulties. Mystical union with God, even the dialectical relation envisaged by the Lutheran mystic, Jakob Bohme, did not satisfy the need for atonement. The young Anglican evangelical, Henry Venn, an adept of the Behmenist William Law, repudiated him violently when 'he came to a passage wherein Mr Law seemed to represent the blood of Christ as of no more avail in procuring our salvation than the excellence of his moral character'.4 Bohme, it seemed, might win liberation from Orthodoxy at too high a price; and, after Wesley's death, it became clear that the large dose of empiricism in his kind of evangelicalism created difficulties regarding the doctrine of the Holy Spirit.
Thus at the moment when evangelicalism was about to enter on its period of greatest influence the evangelical syndrome was coming apart, and it was doing so in central Europe as well as the west. The Pietist Friedrich Christoph Oetinger endeavoured in the mid-eighteenth century (despite the original evangelical hostility to 'system') to construct a system out of kab-balism, Paracelsianism and Bengel's eschatology, using the doctrine of correspondences developed by the Swedish visionary Emanuel Swedenborg. This alliance of Oetinger and Swedenborg proved ill-fated. Both partners were subject to disciplinary proceedings by their own churches. Oetinger, moreover, was wedded to Bengel's system ofrealistic scriptural exegesis, not the spiritual, hieroglyphic interpretations of the Swedish visionary. In the event, Oetinger decided that Swedenborg's True Christianity (1771) was not true at all. Wesley also violently repudiated the Swede, even though this was at the cost of a small secession from his Methodist movement. Johann-Caspar Lavater, the famous preacher of Zurich, was also attracted by the doctrine of correspondences. He
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