occurring among the Dutch in New Jersey where Theodore Frelinghuysen promoted the standard emphases of European Pietism: personal repentance, Christ-centred faith, and suspicion of inherited church authority. Presbyterians who had come to America from Ulster were also drawn to these emphases more readily than their fellows from Scotland. In the early 1740s a Scots-Irish party led by Gilbert Tennent, who had been pointed towards Pietistic concerns by Frelinghuysen, joined forces with transplanted New Englanders led by Jonathan Dickinson to create a dynamic movement of New Side Presbyterian revival. It eventually produced a corps of eager young preachers, among whom the most effective was Samuel Davies (1723-61). Davies, who settled permanently in Virginia in 1748, laboured patiently to win recognition for Presbyterian churches there - first by appealing to the British Toleration Act of 1689 and then by preaching intensely patriotic sermons during the war with France. By the time of Davies' departure from Virginia to serve as president of the College of New Jersey at Princeton, a Presbyterianism that combined respect for the Scottish confessional legacy with a Pietistic urgency was spreading fast in several middle and southern colonies.
The most visible expression of the new religious forces, however, came from a local revival in Massachusetts and the exertions of an Anglican itinerant. In late 1734, Jonathan Edwards (1703-58), the grandson and successor of Solomon Stoddard, preached a short series of sermons to his Northampton congregation on justification by faith. Response in the town was electric, as described in Edwards' initial report: 'Those that were most disposed to contemn vital and experimental religion, and those that had the greatest conceit of their own reason, the highest families in the town, and the oldest persons in the town, and many little children were affected remarkably; no one family that I know of, and scarcely a person, has been exempt'.11
The particular history of Northampton and Edwards' persistent preaching against what he viewed as Arminian tendencies help explain this revival, just as the suicide of Edwards' uncle, Joseph Hawley, in May 1735 helps explain why the revival cooled. But what local circumstances cannot explain is the clamour that greeted Edwards' account - A Faithful Narrative of the Surprizing Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton, and the Neighboring Towns and Villages - when in 1737 it was published in London under the auspices of Isaac Watts. Edwards' stark depiction of the damning dreadfulness of human sin and his equally powerful depiction of the palpable joy of salvation struck chords of sympathy in Boston and elsewhere in the colonies, in Scotland, England, and Wales, and even on the continent. Edwards would go on to a chequered career with his Northampton congregation, which in 1750 expelled
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