and contribute significantly to the development of Christianity as a world religion.

The most active and perhaps even the most influential representative of a third generation of Pietists was Ludwig Nikolaus Graf Zinzendorf, born in 1700 and an alumnus of Francke's foundations at Halle. Since the 1720s, Zinzendorf had assembled pious Protestants on his estate at Herrnhut, among them many refugees from Moravia and Bohemia who traced their religious faith back to Johann Hus. In 1727, to the surprise and joy of all who were involved, something that can be called a collective revival occurred at Herrnhut. This event convinced Zinzendorf that God had entrusted to him a very special mission. In the 1730s, the number of Zinzendorf's followers grew rapidly. Pietists from various German regions joined his cause. Soon Herrnhut became too small. Zinzendorf did not hesitate to act. Within the following years, he established new communities in other places, even in other countries, as for example Zeist in the Netherlands, and Neuwied in the Rhineland. Zinzendorf also travelled a great deal. Historians have called him the count who crossed all borders, a characterization that has multiple meanings. Not only did Zinzendorf travel, more than once, to North America where the Herrnhuter, or Moravians as they were called in the English-speaking world, had founded the community of Bethlehem; Zinzendorf also had a close spiritual relationship with common people who counted as his most loyal supporters. For his second marriage he chose a partner from a non-noble family.

As early as the 1730s, Zinzendorf sent missionaries to faraway places. Best known are the missionary endeavours of the Moravians among African slaves on sugar plantations in the West Indies and among the Eskimos in Greenland. As a rule, Zinzendorf's missionaries were skilled artisans, preferably carpenters (although this turned out to be quite useless in Greenland where no trees for building houses could be found). Most certainly, the secret of the success of the missionaries sent from Herrnhut was that they always combined biblical teaching with practical help. Zinzendorf's theology can best be described as an early form of ecumenism. He thought little of confessional differences. Rather, what he attempted to create was an international army of committed reborn Christians of which he would be the undisputed leader. Within Herrnhut, Zinzendorf divided people according to gender, family status and age by forming so-called choirs. In the late 1740s, another wave of spiritual excitement swept through Herrnhut and other Moravian communities. This widely publicized event convinced traditional Protestants and also the Pietists at Halle that Zinzendorf could not be trusted. When Zinzendorf died in 1760, his heritage was as rich as it was problematic. By the time of his death he had

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