turned back by the Austrian authorities. On her return Kummer continued her career as prophetess of the millennium. Influenced by such apocalyptic visions, others made different kinds of pilgrimages. The W├╝rttemberg Pietist weaver, Johann George Rapp, who believed he would live to see Christ's Second Coming, emigrated during 1803-04 with some 1,600 of his followers to North America. There they formed a community, which they named New Harmony, where they hoped for refuge during the time of the devil's raging before the coming of the millennium. Still other millenarian Pietists withdrew into their conventicles in Germany to await the world's last days.

Perhaps the most celebrated figure of the prophetic movement was the Baronness Julie de Krudener (1764-1824), a German aristocrat from the Baltic region. The estranged wife of a diplomat, Julie de Krudener was wealthy, affected, attractive, and flirtatious, and had spent much of her life travelling about Europe in search ofpleasure. Her sentimental novel, Valerie, had received acclaim in fashionable circles at its publication in 1803. Then amid the warfare of 1805-07, and the crushing defeats of Austria, Prussia, and Russia, Julie was drawn into millenarian circles. She met the Pietist mystic, Jung-Stilling, who was now predicting that the millennium would begin in 1818 or 1819. In 1807, she became the confidante of Queen Louise of Prussia, a renowned beauty who had embraced an ascetic Christian piety amid her country's devastating defeat. By 1808, Julie had become part of an extravagant mystical Pietist coterie in Baden, led by Frederick Fontaines and including Marie Kummer. Preaching and prophesying to the common people, the coterie was harried from place to place by nervous authorities - until it was broken up. Julie, however, continued her mission as a self-proclaimed prophetess ofthe Second Coming. By 1814, she was an emaciated, prematurely aged figure, her thinning hair severely parted in the middle, her clothing plain and her manners stern. She had come to view Tsar Alexander I of Russia as God's chosen one, who would come from the north and lead the nations of Europe into a new Christian era.

Julie de Krudener was not alone among the intellectuals of Europe in finding her way to a personal Christian faith or seeking in Christianity a new world-order of peace and unity. Disillusioned by the directions taken by the Revolution, a number ofpoets, authors and artists ofthe Romantic movement, with its celebration of subjective feeling, intuitive insight and freedom from convention, moved towards Christianity from about 1800. Friedrich Schleiermacher, a Protestant pastor with roots in Pietism, was part of the Jena circle of young Romantics surrounding the author Friedrich Schlegel; his friends convinced him to write an apology for Christianity, directed to intellectuals who rejected religion. Schleiermacher's On religion: Speeches to its cultured despisers

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