he even sought to obtain Anglican training for Prussian students of theology in the English universities, though without success. In the meanwhile, he promoted Pietism at the new University of Halle in an explicit effort to popularize the kind of inward piety and practical religion that could build bridges between confessional factions in the realm. Similarly, in the Netherlands, the established Reformed clergy were broadly sympathetic to dialogue with Lutherans, motivated in part by the desire to strengthen Protestantism in the face of Catholicism. Late seventeenth-century efforts between Reformed and Lutheran leaders foundered on theological differences, but in 1729 interest in reconciliation between Dutch Calvinists and Lutherans was restimulated by the writings of Johannes Mommers, and in 1747 these ideas were developed by Anthonie van Hardeveldt.16
In late seventeenth-century England, the principal aim of many Anglican churchmen was the comprehension of all English Protestants within a single established church. The desirability of union was felt all the more keenly in the wake of resurgent Catholicism abroad and the possibility of a Catholic king at home. In 1667-68, and again in 1680 and 1689, attempts were made to deal with the difficult question of reordination, and while these efforts ultimately failed, they did influence the terms of the Toleration Act. Following the Revolution, the idea of comprehending all Protestants within the established church did not attract wide discussion, but the ideal survived in the thought of Low Churchmen and pre-eminently in the person of Benjamin Hoadly, whose goal was to induce conformity by encouraging Dissenters to receive communion frequently at the parish church. Hopes for reconciliation between Anglicans and Nonconformists were set back by the events of Queen Anne's reign, although continued fear of a Catholic-supported Jacobite invasion kept the idea alive.
More was accomplished in practical terms of denominational cooperation through the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, founded in 1698. This Anglican organization provided support to numerous Lutheran missionaries during the eighteenth century. In the 1740s, Nonconformists Philip Doddridge and later Samuel Chandler proposed reunion with the established church and initiated talks with several bishops, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Herring. The extent of Chandler's proposed changes to creed and liturgy probably doomed the effort from the outset, and in any case, the bishops were still thinking in terms of a comprehension that was unacceptable to many Dissenters.
What Anglicans and Nonconformists could not accomplish through direct methods was attained in limited ways through the unintended consequences
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