their homes in a manner that astounded the whole of Europe. The first two peasants expelled made straight for the Imperial Diet at Regensburg, with a petition for the free exercise of the Protestant faith bearing 18,000 signatures. Support for the Protestant cause was swelled by revival, a coarser version of what had happened in Silesia and was to happen again in America. In November 1731, the archbishop expelled all Protestants over the age of twelve virtually without notice. Protestant Salzburgers left in huge numbers to be picked up at various points in Swabia by Prussian agents, marched by different columns to the north-east, paid a daily subsistence allowance, and after occasioning 'moving awakenings' on the way, settled in domestic service or on peasant lots between Berlin and Livonia. The operation cost the Prussian government half a million thalers, but they got 20,000 settlers. All the Protestant powers subscribed and took their share of expelled Salzburgers, the British receiving a first instalment of 200 who were settled by the Georgia trustees near Savannah with two ministers from Halle, and put under the general spiritual oversight of the Wesley brothers.

The Salzburg upheaval contributed greatly to the spread of revival. Very many people, even in Oxford common rooms, were drawn into the rescue operation, and the propaganda warfare reached levels last seen at the time of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The evidence of what the ordinary faithful could do for themselves without a church system was a shock to the Protestant Orthodox. Unsettlement in the Baltic area contributed to a vivid Moravian revival there. And deep within the Habsburg Empire, in Carinthia, Styria and the Tyrol, Protestants were encouraged (and continually exhorted by Salzburger propagandists) to think that they might repeat the Salzburg miracle. What was surprising was that the Protestantism of the revivals did not affront the scruples ofthe evangelical syndrome. The chief exception was in Hungary where the Protestants retained their church systems despite extreme pressure, and with these church systems they also retained a foothold in those social strata which traditionally held access to political power. Nevertheless, even within Hungarian Protestantism, the greatest growth occurred within the so-called 'widowed' congregations without a pastor, which numbered about a thousand at the time of the Toleration Patent of 1781. In short, the priesthood of all believers was realized in Hungary too.

In the large towns of Switzerland and the west, the urban patriciates put up a strong fight for Orthodoxy (not always successfully), but in the great Reformed reserve ofthe United Provinces, the pastoral problem was quite different. Here one-third of the population remained Catholic, and many more were devoted to riotous living. Assimilation was made more difficult by giving hospitality

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