8. Frey and Wood, Come shouting to Zion, pp. 80-148.

9. Carolyn Fick, The making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue revolution from below (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), p. 65; Davis, Problem of slavery in western culture, pp. 203-11; Conrad, Children of God's fire, pp. 163-74.

10. James H. Sweet, Recreating Africa: Culture, kinship, and religion in the African-Portuguese world, 1441 -1770 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), pp. 200-01; Laennec Hurbon, 'The church and slavery in eighteenth-century Saint Domingue', in Marcel Dorigny (ed.), The abolitions of slavery from L. F. Sonthonax to Victor Schoelcher, 1793,1794,1848 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2003), pp. 58-61; Thomas Ingersoll, Mammon and Manon in early New Orleans: The first slave society in the Deep South, 1718-1819 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1999), pp. 111-12; Marcus Jernegan, 'Slavery and conversion in the American colonies', American historicalreview, 21 (1916), pp. 504-27.

12. Frey and Wood, Come shouting to Zion, pp. 80-117.

14. Christopher L. Brown, 'Empire without slaves: British concepts of emancipation in the age of the American Revolution', William and Mary quarterly, 3rd ser., 56 (1999), pp. 298-303.

15. J. M. Lenhart, 'Capuchin champions of Negro emancipation in Cuba, 1681-1685', Franciscan studies, 6 (1946), pp. 209-10; Eugene Genovese, Roll Jordan roll: The world the slaves made (New York: Vintage, 1976), pp. 177-9; Colin M. Maclachlan, 'Slavery, ideology, and institutional change: The impact of the Enlightenment on slavery in late eighteenth-century Maranhao', Journal ofLatin American studies, 11 (1979), pp. 14-15.

16. Sydney V James, A people among peoples: Quaker benevolence in eighteenth-century America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, i963);JamesD. Essig, The bonds of wickedness: American Evangelicals against slavery, 1770-1808 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, i982).

17. David Brion Davis, The problem of slavery in the age of revolution, 1770-1823 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1975), pp. 285-99, 392-8; Gilbert Wakefield, A sermon preached at Richmond in Surry on July 29th, 1784, the day appointed for a general thanksgiving on account ofthe peace (London, i784), p. i6.

18. Linda Colley, Britons: Forging the nation, 1707-1837 (London: Pimlico, 1992), pp. 350-60; Stiv Jakobbson, Am I not a man and a brother? British missions and the abolition of the slave trade and slavery in West Africa and the West Indies, 1786-1838 (Lund: Gleerup, 1972).

19. Davis, Problem of slavery in the age of revolution, pp. 196-8, 213-32; Judith Jennings, The business of abolishing the slave trade, 1783-1807 (London: Frank Cass, 1997).

20. Anthony Parent, Foul means: The formation of a slave society in Virginia, 1660-1740 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), pp. 259-60; John K. Thornton, African dimensions of the Stono rebellion', American historical review, 96 (i99i), pp. ii03, ii07-1108; Armando Lampe, 'Christianity and slavery in the Dutch Caribbean', in Lampe (ed.), Christianity in the Caribbean: Essays on church history (Barbardos: University of the West Indies Press, 2001), p. 142.

21. Adam Potkay and Sandra Burr (eds.), Black Atlanticwriters of the 18thcentury (Basingstoke: Macmillan, i995), pp. 3-i6; John Saillant, 'Slavery and Divine Providence in New England Calvinism: The New Divinity and black protest', New England quarterly, 8 (1995),

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