Confessional states and toleration in France Austria Hungary and the German lands

Since the early 1660s, the religious freedom of Reformed Protestants in France had been progressively reduced by Louis XIV, and his long-standing quest for religious uniformity culminated in the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). Calvinist church buildings were razed, the laity was forbidden to assemble, their children were to be baptized and educated by Catholics, and Reformed ministers were given two weeks to conform or leave the country. The harshness of the law produced widespread conformity, even among ministers, but it also led to the most extensive forced migration in early modern Europe, producing by the turn of the century some 160,000 Calvinist refugees. Jews, who were already severely restricted as to where they could reside in France, suffered from a similar policy when they were exiled from the French colonies. Active suppression of Protestants by the government did not extend far into the eighteenth century, although an edict of 1724 did reaffirm the anti-Protestant

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