The Portuguese governor, Afonso de Albuquerque, had taken over the western coastal city of Goa in 1510 and it soon became the capital of the Portuguese possessions in the entire east, the Estado da India (as these possessions were called) spreading from Hormuz at the mouth of the Persian Gulf to Malacca and to the Indonesian Spice islands. Within Goa, the Portuguese made vigorous efforts to convert the people to the Christian faith. Along with the Portuguese government officials, merchants and soldiers, groups of religious priests and brothers and secular priests came to Goa each year from Portugal. Goa also became an important educational centre, with priests and catechists receiving training there and then moving to missions in other parts of India and beyond. Goa was raised to the status of a diocese in 1534 and to that of an archdiocese in 1557. The Franciscans arrived there as early as 1510, the Jesuits in 1542, the Dominicans in 1548, the Augustinians in 1572, and the Carmelites in 1607. Among the well-known educational institutions located in Goa were the Colleges of St Aquinas (Dominicans), St Bonaventure (Franciscans), Populo (Augustinians), and St Paul's and St Roque (Jesuits). The many Goan churches
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