Enlightened despotism as a form of secularization

At best, Enlightened despots ruling in the various Protestant states of central Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century advocated religious tolerance very often, however, they had no interest in religion other than as a matter of traditional decorum on certain holidays and on special occasions. For example, Enlightened despots ordered that burial grounds which up until then had often been placed in churchyards located in town centres should be closed for hygienic reasons, and that...

The religion of the Enlightenment

Speaking of what came naturally leads to concern for the other religious force that Crane Brinton denominated the religion of the Enlightenment with a Big 'E'. While members of the various churches could fight at each other's side and demonize the king and the British, they did not share enough premises to enable them to devise the sets of common purposes that would be needed for nation-building. Here, fortuitously or providentially, this new Enlightened philosophy held sufficient sway among...

The Christian Enlightenment

Benin, Stephen, The footprints of God Divine accommodation in Jewish and Christian thought, Albany, NY State University of New York Press, 1993. Bernard, A., Le sermon au XVIIIe siecle. Etude historique et critique sur la predication en France, de 1715 a 1789, Paris Thrinetfils, 1901. Blanning, T. C. W, 'The Enlightenment in Catholic Germany', in Roy Porter and Mikulas Teich (eds.), The Enlightenment in national context, Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1981. Brown, Stewart J., 'William...

The plan of the volume

As the reader will discover, the essays in this volume have been divided into five parts. Four chapters in the first part examine the problems of church, state, and society in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe. They are conceived to provide a broad overview of the political and social context of the Christian experience during the period. Part II then examines a variety of issues related to Christian life, primarily in Europe, prior to the French Revolution from the nature and origins...

The Catholic clergy in Europe mano rosa

This survey of the Catholic clergy in Europe, from 1650 to the eve of the French Revolution, will present a comparative outline of the various ecclesiastical groupings, divided into two main branches. The first of these, the secular clergy, consisted of the episcopal hierarchy and the lower clergy of parish priests, clerics belonging to the major orders, and the floating population of those who were in minor orders or merely tonsured. The regular clergy consisted of the male and female members...

The aims and the attraction of the Enlightenment

The new ideas of the Enlightenment first captured the minds of Protestants in the north west of Europe, in Great Britain and the Netherlands. While British and Dutch thinkers made bold moves towards a new world-view, their counterparts in German Protestantism were, as a rule, more cautious, if not timid when it came to expressing new ideas. This was true, for example, of the political writings of the German Protestant, Samuel Pufendorf, as well as of the philosophical treatises of his fellow...

Info

Benjamin Hoadly, A preservative against the principles and practices of the nonjurors both in church and state (London, 1716), pp. 2, 72, 78, 90-1. 17. Benjamin Hoadly, The nature of the kingdom, or church, of Christ. A sermon . . . March 31, 1717 (London, 1717), pp. 11-12, 30. 18. William Law, Three letters to the Bishop of Bangor (London, 1721). 19. Thomas Lathbury, A history of the convocation of the Church of England, 2nd edn (London, 20. Warburton, Works, vol. 7, p. 368 (postscript to...

Introduction

StEWART J. brown AND timothy TACKETT Every historical age is an age of transition. But it is clear that from the mid-seventeenth century to the early nineteenth century - the period covered in the present volume - the Christian world would confront a series of exceptionally difficult transformations and challenges. By the end of this period, forces of intellectual and political opposition had arisen that put into question not only the nature of Christian doctrine and the authority of the church...

Christianity and Islam

In 1660, western Europe, free from a Muslim political presence since the fall of Granada, saw Islam primarily in terms of the threat to its security posed by the powerful Ottoman Empire. The reality of this threat was confirmed when, in 1683, Ottoman armies reached the gates of Vienna. Soon after this dramatic event, however, Ottoman power entered a period of decline and both Catholic Austria and Orthodox Russia began to make significant military advances against the Turks. It was these...

Revolution And The Christian World

25 The American Revolution and religion, 1765-1815 497 mARTin e. martt 26 Christianity and the campaign against slavery and the slave trade 517 chRisTophER leslie bRown 27 The French Revolution and religion to 1794 53 6 28 The French Revolution and religion, 1795-1815 55 6 suzAnne desAn 29 Movements of Christian awakening in revolutionary Europe, Chronology 596 Bibliography 603 Index 652

Philip T Hoffman

In early modern Europe, Christianity touched most people's lives, from their baptism shortly after birth to the funeral services after death. Christianity affected even mundane details of daily existence. Tolling church bells marked the time of day, and at least in Catholic regions, saints' feast days were used to designate when a market was held or a debt was due. The Sabbath and feast days dictated when Christians rested, and the vast majority of Europeans who toiled in the fields turned a...

Illustrations

1 St Peter's Basilica, Rome the fa ade page 229 2 St Paul's Cathedral, London frontis 231 3 Val-de-Gr ce, Paris 233 4 Church of the Invalides, Paris, interior 234 5 Einsiedeln Abbey (Benedictine), Switzerland, interior 237 6 Church of Parinacota, Chile 388 7 Crucifix from the Christian Kongolese Kingdom, south-western Africa 413 8 'Virgin and Child', fashioned in Goa, India, c. 1700 ivory statuette 438 9 'Mary as patroness of the Japanese martyrs' silk painting 469 1 Confessional map of Europe...

Literacy reading and faith

One of the fundamental characteristics of the Protestant and the subsequent Catholic Reformations was the assertion that no one could claim to be a Christian unless they could account for their belief. Thus, Luther viewed the catechism as 'something each Christian must absolutely know, so that anyone not knowing it will not be considered a Christian and will not be admitted to any of the sacraments'.1 Indeed, a strong link was established between religion and teaching among Protestants and...

Charles J Borges

This chapter will explore the spread of Christianity from the sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries within the various parts of undivided India and, more briefly, in some other areas of south and south-east Asia. We will begin with India. The history of India goes back some 5,000 years to the Indus Valley civilization with its sophisticated urban culture found in the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. The Indo-Aryan civilization probably came to India from central Asia around 1500 BC and...

Revolution

The wave of revolutions that swept across the Atlantic world in the later eighteenth century originated in developments that are largely outside the concern of this volume. In their long-term development, the revolutions can be linked to geopolitical competition for empire and the profits of maritime trade, especially the struggle between Great Britain and France. In the aftermath of Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War, the English-speaking colonies in North America violently resisted...

Spain the Bourbon family pact and the end of the Jesuits

The religious polarization resulting from the anti-Jesuit campaign in France and Portugal began to affect Spain directly shortly afterthe accession of Charles III when, in 1761, the Spanish Grand Inquisitor published the Roman Congregation's condemnation of Mesenguy's Jansenist catechism without royal authorization. Whereupon the newly crowned King Charles III obliged the inquisitor to rescind the publication and to submit himself to a humiliating apology. What was at issue was less Jansenism -...

Lamin Sanneh

Led by Catholic Spain and Portugal, and later joined by Protestant England and the Netherlands, the explosion of maritime exploration from the late fifteenth century made for a shift from land-based power to sea-based power. In the era before Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape in 1498, the dominant world powers had been land-based. After i500, the dominant powers were those with unchallenged suzerainty over the sea lanes, from Lisbon and Genoa, or Plymouth and Rotterdam, to Goa and Canton....

Christianity In Africa

Anstey, Roger, The Atlantic slave trade and British abolition 1760-1810, London Macmillan, 1975. Baur, John, 2000 years of Christianity in Africa An African history 62-1992, Nairobi Paulines, 1994. Cuffee, Paul, Paul Cuffe's logs and letters 1808-1817 A Black Quaker's 'Voice from Within the Veil', ed. Rosalind Cobb Wiggins, Washington, DC Howard University Press, 1996. DuBois, W E. B., The suppression of the African slave trade to the United States of America 163 8-1870 (1898), repr. New York...

The Suffering Of The Christian During The French Revolution

Legislation ofthe previous century, and local officials initiated sporadic attacks, particularly in the south of France where Protestants were numerous. Forms of Catholic dissent were also discriminated against, though without the harshness directed against Protestants. The papal bull Unigenitus (1713) condemning certain tenets attributed to Jansenism had the French crown's blessing and substantial, if mixed, support from the French episcopate. Towards the mid-eighteenth century, depending on...

Louis Chatellier

The period from 1660 to the beginning of the nineteenth century was distinguished not only by significant technical and scientific progress, but also by the spread of a new way of thinking that drew for its effectiveness on scientific reasoning. English intellectuals such as Samuel Clarke were inspired by Newton's Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (1687), while the huge impact of Leibniz's Essais de Th odicee (1710) was due largely to the author's mathematical knowledge. In France,...

Christianity and Confucianism

As already noticed, the Jesuit mission in China - which began with the arrival of Fathers Michele Ruggieri and Francesco Pasio in 1582 and was soon to be dominated by Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) - began a fruitful encounter with Confucianism. Despite the presence in ninth- and tenth-century China of the Nestorian Mission and the presence in China of Franciscans and of Marco Polo in the medieval period, the Christian west appeared to have no knowledge of what is called in Chinese ru-jia or ru-jiao,...

A time of persecution and recovery

The appointment of the Jesuit Adam Schall von Bell as director of the Astronomical Bureau by the Shunzhi Emperor in 1645 suggested that the missionaries and Christianity had been accepted by the new regime. For a while the prestige attached to the court Jesuits' position afforded a degree of protection to priests and converts. However, this relatively trouble-free period came to an end as a result of the so-called 'Calendar Case' instigated by Yang Guang-xian. Having made several attempts to...

Christianity In East Asia

De la Costa, Horacio, 'The development of the native clergy in the Philippines', in Horacio de la Costa and John N. Schumacher (eds.), The Filipino clergy Historical studies and future perspectives, Manila Loyola Papers Board of Editors, Loyola School of Theology, Ateneo de Manila University, 1980, pp. 58-9. The Jesuits in the Philippines, Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press, 1961. Escoto, Salvador P., 'The ecclesiastical controversy of 1767-1776 A catalyst of Philippine nationalism',...

Martin E Marty

The War of Independence (1776-83), fought by the British colonies in North America against the British government, was the dominant but by no means the only defining event in American religion between 1765 and 1815. The period also saw colonists living off the spiritual capital they had created in the First Great Awakening, which had climaxed in the 1740s, and then citizens realizing what many historians have called a Second Great Awakening beginning around the turn of the nineteenth century....

And 28 The French Revolution And Religion

Tackett, Timothy (ed.), The French Revolution research collection. Section 8. Religion, Oxford Pergamon Press, 1990. Aries, Philippe, L'homme devant la mort, Paris Editions du Seuil, 1977 Aston, Nigel, The end of an 'elite' The French bishops and the coming ofthe Revolution, 1786-1790, Oxford Clarendon Press, 1992. Religion and revolution in France, 1780-1804, Washington, DC The Catholic University of America Press, 2000. Aulard, Fran ois-Alphonse, Le culte de la raison et le culte de l'etre...

Architecture And Christianity

Arminjon, Catherine and Denis Lavalle (eds.), 20 si cles en cath drales, Paris Editions du patrimoine, 2001. Bazin, Germain, L'Architecture religieuse baroque au Bresil, Sao Paulo Museude Arte, 1956-58. Bouchon, Chantal, Catherine Brisac, Nadine-Josette Chaline, and Jean-Michel Leniaud, Ces glises du dix-neuvi me si cle, Amiens Encrage, 1993. Du Colombier, Pierre, L'Architecture fran aise en Allemagne au XVIIIe siecle, Paris PUF, 1956. Hitchcock, Henry Russell, Rococo architecture in southern...

The secular clergy in France

In the seventeenth century, the French secular clergy numbered approximately 100,000 out of a total of 18 million inhabitants, a number which would rise in the eighteenth century to approximately 130,000 out of 25 million. Despite the fact that the French parish priest was commonly appointed by an ecclesiastical or lay patron (and more rarely, by the bishop), and despite the considerable presence of chaplains and other priests without cure of souls who occasionally celebrated Mass, there was...

Christopher Leslie Brown

The British abolitionist Thomas Clarkson, author of the first history of the Anglo-American antislavery movements, attributed the public campaigns against the slave trade to the influence of religious progress. The 1807 abolition ofthe American and British slave trades represented, he thought, the fulfilment of Christian teachings and a vindication of the faith. In other cultures and at other times, Clarkson acknowledged, religious leaders had encouraged and facilitated beneficence to the weak...

The secular clergy in Spain and Portugal

By the end of the eighteenth century, the secular clergy of Spain totalled some 70,000 individuals out of a clerical population of 148,000 and a general population of 10.5 million. The majority of the seculars were concentrated in the cities, living largely from benefices or from bequests for Masses. To those clerics who had received sacerdotal ordination, must be added a 'clerical proletariat' who had only taken minor orders and who enjoyed privileges such as exemptions from taxes and from lay...

The Enlightenment Critique Of Christianity

Berti, Sylvia,'The religious sources of unbelief, Journal of the history of ideas, 56 (1995), Champion, Justin, Republican learning, Manchester Manchester University Press, 2003. Goldgar, Anne, Impolite learning Conduct and community in the republic of letters, 1680-1750, New Haven Yale University Press, 1995. Jacob, Margaret C., The Newtonians and the English revolution, 1689-1720, Ithaca Cornell University Press, 1976. The Enlightenment a briefhistory with documents, Boston, MA Bedford, 2001....

Aspiration

Some Catholic preachers - including Jacques Benigne Bossuet (1627-1704) in a sermon held in 1661 on Matt. 17 5 ('This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased listen to him') - conceived the sermon in analogy to the Eucharist. Where the altar symbolized the physical reality of Christ, the pulpit represented his verbal reality whilst hearers experienced 'inner preaching' through the Eucharist, they witnessed 'outer preaching' through the sermon.5 The impact of the early modern sermon might...

Timothy Tackett

In its impact on France and on Europe, the French Revolution stands as one of the pivotal moments in the recent history of Christianity. It led not only to a decade-long schism within the Catholic Church, but also, for a time, to a state-sponsored assault on Christianity itself unlike anything in the European experience since the early Roman Empire. In its later stages it produced the first full separation of church and state in modern times. Although some of these conflicts were attenuated...

Christianity and Buddhism

In a textbook on Buddhism widely used at the end of the twentieth century, the author asserts that 'Buddhism was discovered in the west during the first half of the nineteenth century.'17 The author goes on to say that of course there had been encounters in the past between westerners and what came to be called Buddhism in the west. However, these 'disparate accounts of the encounter of the West with indistinct aspects of the Orient' were only recognized retrospectively as relating to Buddhism,...

Protestant missions in India

The Dutch, British, and Danish merchants who set up trading stations, or factories, along the coasts of India in the seventeenth century brought along with them their own chaplains. With the founding of the Lutheran mission at Tranquebar on the east coast of south India in the early years of the eighteenth century, the monopoly which the Roman Catholic Church had till then held in the mission field was challenged. From 1706 till the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Lutheran Mission...

Sermon On From Revaluation To Revolution

Countries attempted to make concrete the scriptural message, accommodating it to the understanding of the 'people'. The sermon evolved into a vehicle of communication reflecting - and thus also propagating - in both form and content new ideas on social order, improvement and polite society. There was also a growing regard for the sermon as a literary product, as a discourse requiring literary craftsmanship in addition to professional competence the rising medium of the periodical devoted...

Margaret C Jacob

The crisis provoked by monarchical absolutism and established churches The period after 1660 saw the emergence of the first sustained attack on Christianity from within Europe since the triumph of the Christian Church under Constantine in the fourth century. To be sure the critics were few and the dangers great. But once unleashed, they became a radical force, never again to be silenced. A specific set of circumstances caused the anti-Christian genie to spring from a dark and angry place within...

Confessional states and toleration in the North Atlantic before 1700

The first extended public debate over toleration in Europe occurred amid the upheavals of the English civil wars. At about the same time, the most innovative experiments in religious liberty were attempted in the New World. Colonists from England and the Netherlands put in place several practical schemes of toleration that illustrated the halting development of religious freedom. The Catholic George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore, obtained a grant for Maryland and primarily for pragmatic reasons...

Christianity and Hinduism

The first encounter of western Christianity with what has come to be called Hinduism came with the creation of a number of Portuguese bases on the coast of India in the first decade of the sixteenth century. Christianity and Hinduism had already met in the early centuries of Christian history as the presence of the Christians of St Thomas, or Syrian Christians, in southern India attested however, that encounter had had little or no impact on western Christianity. The Syrian Christian community...

Religion in the new nation

That left white men to determine what life in the independent colonies should look like. The common religious ethos developed in the Great Awakening and the much more passionate sense of commonality that grew while people from thirteen colonies had to be united as they risked death and gave lives during the war meant that it was possible to conceive of their thirteen separate colonies virtually as ready for a new, more interactive polity. They did this first through the frail and ineffective...

The rise and decline of Pietism

In the period between the end of the Thirty Year's War and the era of the French Revolution, no religious movement changed the face of continental Protestantism more than Pietism. The followers of Pietism, as this religious revival soon came to be called, developed new centres of social, cultural, and political activity for all Protestants. But more importantly, perhaps, those Protestants who were inspired by the ideas of Pietism exhibited a new kind of self-esteem. They believed, it seems,...

The Great Awakening

The religious beginning of the emergent story of the Revolution, in the minds of an ever-increasing number of historians, lay in the Great Awakening. The Awakening is seen as the first true inter-colonial intellectual and spiritual event and complex. The heart of the revivalists' or awakeners' message was, of course, the need for individuals to turn from their wicked ways and to let God the Father ofJesus Christ draw them to God's self. But not only individual salvation was at issue. The...

I

They are now published in Hermann Sauter and Erich Loos eds. , Paul Thiry Baron d'Holbach. Die Gesamte Erhaltene Korrespondenz Stuttgart Steiner, 1986 , pp. 9-10. 25. G. S. Rousseau, 'In the house of Madam Van der Tasse, on the longbridge Ahomosexual university club in early modern Europe', in Kent Gerard and Gert Hekma eds. , The pursuit of sodomy Male homosexuality in Renaissance and Enlightenment Europe New York Harrington Park Press, 1989 , pp. 311-48. 26. The Third Earl of Shaftesbury...

Christianity In Iberian America

Alden, Dauril, The making of an enterprise The Society of Jesus in Portugal, its empire, and beyond, 1540-1750, Stanford Stanford University Press, 1996. Block, David, Mission culture on the upper Amazon Native tradition, Jesuit enterprise and secular policy in Moxos, 1600-1880, Lincoln, NB University of Nebraska Press, 1994. Brading, D. A., Church and state in Michoacan, 1749-1810, Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1994. Mexican Phoenix Our Lady of Guadalupe Image and tradition across five...

Acknowledgements

The editors wish to express their appreciation to Dr Katharina Brett, Ms Gillian Dadd, Mr Kevin Taylor and other members ofthe staff at Cambridge University Press for their valued support in the preparation of this volume. Professors Ulrike Strasser, Daniel Schroeter, and Stephen Topik, all of the University of California, Irvine, provided valuable advice in the early stages of the project. Micah Alpaugh, from the same University, assisted us with the chronology. The editors also wish to note a...

The Sierra Leone experiment to 1815

In West Africa the evangelical cause was represented by the Church Missionary Society CMS ofthe Church of England, founded in 1799, although, instructively, the first CMS recruits were German evangelicals, Melchio Renner and Peter Hartwig, who arrived in Sierra Leone in 1804. With its hints of unruly enthusiasm, evangelical religion was suspect among probably most Anglicans, and churchmen found the idea of missionary service unfamiliar and unacceptable. Consequently, the CMS became by force of...

The French bishops

The French episcopate seemed to develop rather differently, as an alternative model to that of its Spanish counterparts, especially in the early decades of the seventeenth century. France was a country with a strong and active Calvinist minority, recognized by the Edict of Nantes in 1598. With the end of the wars of religion, a reconstruction of Catholic religious and ecclesiastical life became necessary. This was pursued within the framework of the approximately 130 French dioceses, dioceses...

Church property and rights to the tithe

In Protestant Europe, the Reformation had stripped away a considerable amount of church property, much of it coming from monasteries that were dissolved. The land, real estate, and other assets that had once belonged to the church fell into the hands of secular authorities or served to fund schools, universities, and charities. Protestant churches did possess some property and still retained most rights to the tithe, but they owned far less than religious institutions in Catholic territories....

Protestant missions and African rights in South Africa

The eighteenth-century Protestant evangelical movement, as we have seen, served to revive missionary interest in general. Thus was founded in 1795 the London Missionary Society LMS , and other related bodies such as the Netherlands Missionary Society of Rotterdam 1797 , the mission school in Berlin founded in 1800 by Pastor Johann Janicke of the Brethren Church, and in 1815 the Basel school that supplied recruits for British missions. The Netherlands Missionary Society picked up the African...

Concredita Nobis

It had already been decided in Rome to send a Legate with exceptional powers to China, Thomas de Tournon, to settle the dispute over the Jesuit policy towards Confucianism. His instructions were, in fact, to settle the dispute by condemning the practices usually referred to as the 'Mandarin Rites' and bring their practice to an end. With the arrival in Rome of the complaints from the Capuchins, de Tournon was instructed to go to Pondicherry and there settle this...

Decline of the Philippine church

The period after 1770 was one of decline for the Catholic Church in the Philippines. As John Schumacher has argued, this decline was precipitated by events in Europe. In the later eighteenth century, the Bourbon kings, as ' Enlightened despots', increasingly 'saw the Church primarily as an instrument of the Crown to preserve its subjects in their loyalty and direct their activities in accord with royal purposes'. Charles III, in particular, introduced measures that were designed 'to reduce the...

The Italian bishops

As Claudio Donati has suggested, it is better to speak of the bishops of the different Italian states, than of'the Italian bishops', even if the latter expression can legitimately be used to underline the exceptional relationship between the Italian 'church' and Rome. There was a larger number of dioceses in Italy than in any other European region eighteen, for example, in Tuscany thirty-two under Venetian jurisdiction, and about 130 distributed throughout the Kingdom of Naples. The state's...

Frances Malino

I am a Jew Hath not a Jew eyes Hath not a Jew hands, organs If you prick us, do we not bleed if you wrong us, shall we not revenge I will buy with you, sell with you, talk with you, walk with you . . . but I will not eat with you, drink with you, nor pray with you. In the Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare captures both the ambiguity of Jewish-Christian relations in early modern Europe and the myths surrounding the Jew, the blood-thirsty usurer of medieval legend, 'the very devil incarnation'....

The regular clergy in France

With the end of the wars of religion in France, there was a strong revival of the regular orders. In the early 1600s, even before the bishops' reforms of the secular ecclesiastical structures, a vast movement of French reforms' swept through the older religious orders and monastic congregations, with profound repercussions not only for religious life in France, but in all of Europe. A general tendency towards the centralization of existing institutions through a system of federal connections...