The drawing on the left of an upright tree was made from this petrified tree (Sigillaria) in Nova Scotia. Canada. The bottom part is in shale and the upper part is in sandstone. This and other petrified trees in Joggins, Nova Scotia have been studied by many scientists. Throughout the world, still more polystrate trees continue to baffle evolutionists. (For more on this, see Creation Research Society Quarterly. June 1969.)
Cambrian specimens ought to have been found, but they were not. Yet Burgess Pass, and nearby digging sites (such as Mount Stephen), ultimately yielded almost copious amounts of fossils of nearly every major type of life-form.
"These went further [than merely including fossil bones]—with the outline of the body, even the soft internal organs were often traceable like miniature X-ray films. Among the many fossils found are a wide range of major kinds. I already referred to three main kinds—brachiopods, worms and arthropods (the trilo-bites). Almost every major kind of animal has been found there, except those with backbones."—Harold O. Coffin, "Famous Fossils from a Mountaintop, " in Origins, January 1, 1974, p. 46.
BURIED FORESTS—Another dramatic evidence of a catastrophic flood of massive proportions—as the cause of the sedimentary strata—is the buried forests.
Coal beds, of course, are one such example of buried forests. They will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter.
One of the best places to see buried forests is Specimen Ridge in Yellowstone Park, in Montana. You will there find a succession of petrified tree layers. The uniformi-tarian evolutionists claim that the trees grew there, died, and were gradually covered by soil deposits over oncoming ages as the dead trees stood there. Gradually, after tens of thousands of years, additional trees died and were covered over by more millennia of soil deposits!
But careful analysis of the entire ridge reveals a unity of age, burial conditions, and surrounding deposits. A succession of strong currents, interspersed with flows and volcanic showers from another direction, washed the sedimentary strata into place.
(Both later in this chapter, in chapter 14, and somewhat in chapter 6, we give more attention to the implications of these fossil upright trees, also called polystrate trees.)
Stop and think of it a minute: Would a vertical tree die and stand there for half a million years while rock strata gradually covered it? Yet we find polystrate trees in the strata and even in coal beds.
NON-EXTINCT FOSSILS—The great majority of animals and plants that lived long ago were just like those alive today, with the exception of some extinct species.
Here is a sampling of what you will find in the complete strata of the "geologic column"—but remember that this "complete" strata is to be found in its entirety nowhere in the world. Beginning at the bottom, and proceeding to the top, this is what we find:
Precambrian algae, bacteria, fungi
Cambrian sponges, snails, jellyfish
Ordovician claims, starfish, worms
Silurian scorpions, corals
Devonian sharks, lungfish
Carboniferous ferns, cockroaches
Permian beetles, dragonflies
Triassic pines, palms
Jurassic crocodiles, turtles
Cretaceous ducks, pelicans
Paleocene rats, hedgehogs
Eocene lemurs, rhinoceroses
Oligocene beavers, squirrels, ants
Miocene camels, birds
Pliocene horses, elephants
(Later in this chapter, under the section, "Mixed-up Fossils," we will learn that the fossils are not neatly contained in certain strata; they are often far above or below their assigned strata.)
It is obvious from the above list, that the species we had before, we have now. Those fossils are just like their counterparts living today. Yes, there are some extinct species, for some kinds have died out. But it is of interest that even a number of the anciently extinct species— have in recent years been found to be still living!
Here are some of the thousands of creatures alive today that are totally identical to what they supposedly looked like "millions of years" ago: Cockroach (250 million years); starfish (500 million years); shark(181 million years); sea urchin (100 million years); ginkgo tree (200 million years); dragonfly (170 million years); bacteria (600 million years).
Consider the bat: All the fossil bats look just like the ones that fly around now. It was reported that *Jepsen had found the oldest fossil bat ever! (*G.L. Jepsen reported in Science, for December 9, 1966). A photograph of its skeleton, plus an accompanying sketch are shown in the article. That oldest-known bat is supposedly 50 million years old, and yet it is just like a modern bat skeleton. And below it? not one transitional fossil anywhere that leads us from "lower forms of life " to the bat. When the bat first appears, it is all bat, and nothing but bat!
LIVING FOSSILS—(*#17 Living Fossils [coelacanth andplesiosaur]*) [Appendix 17 on our website has stories, four photographs, and more, but no quotations.]
There are species found only in rock strata, and supposedly millions of years old, which have been declared "extinct for millions of years." This has been considered another "proof" of evolution, although extinction is no evidence of evolution; evolving into new life-forms is.
Yet in recent decades a number of these "extinct for millions of years" species have been found to not be extinct after all!
The BIG question is this: Where then were they all those "millions of years" they were missing _ from the upper rock strata?
"Long before I began to research the subject in any detail, I had brooded about a number of puzzling features—things which didn't seem to fit the [evolutionary] argument—which the textbooks largely ignored.
"There is, for example, the fact that some creatures fail to evolve but chunter on quite successfully as 'living fossils.' Bees preserved in amber from the Tertiary period are almost identical with living bees. And everyone has heard of the coelacanth, supposed to have been extinct since the beginning of the Cretaceous period. The plant world also offers living fossils, such as the gingko, with a leaf unlike that of any modern tree."— *G.R. Taylor, Great Evolution Mystery (1983), pp. 2526.
So many of these "living fossils" have been found that scientists have given a name to the study: Cryptozoology, the study of "hidden animals." According to evolutionary theory, they were once alive, then got hidden for millions of years, and continue living today. Here are some of these "living fossils," all of which are alive today:
(1) Coelacanth fish: The crossopterygian fish—"ex-tinct" since Cretaceous. It has not been found in the strata for the past "50 million years"—yet is alive today.
(2) Metasequoia: The "dawn redwood"—"extinct" since Miocene; not in the strata for the past "60 million years," yet it is alive today.
(3) Tuatara: A beakheaded reptile—"extinct" since Cretaceous; not found in the strata for the past "135 million years"—but today is alive.
(4) Neopilina: A segmented deep-sea mollusk— "extinct" since Devonian. Although missing from the strata for the past "500 million years," it is alive now.
(5) Lingula: A brachiopod shellfish—"extinct" since Ordovician; not in the strata for the past "500 million years," yet it is happily living today.
The now-famous Coelacanth was a large fish known only from its fossil and allegedly extinct for 50 million years. Extinct, that is, until several specimens were found in the ocean! The first was found in a fisherman's net off the coast of Madagascar on December 24, 1938. Since then eight more specimens have been found alive.
It only requires a moment's thought to arrive at a startling fact: How could the Coelacanth have become extinct 50 million years ago. and then be found now? In order to be declared "extinct" such a long time ago. the creature would obviously have had to have been found by paleontologists in older strata—and then not found at all in more recent strata. Why is the Coelacanth not in those more recent strata? Did it decide to hibernate for 50 million years?
This is clear-cut evidence that the sedimentary strata was the result of a rapid laying down of sediments during the Flood,—rather than the tortuously slow "one hundred years per inch" deposition pattern theorized by the evolutionists.
Interestingly enough. some of these "living fossils" formerly were used by evolutionists as "index fossils" to prove the ancientness of certain rock strata! As you will recall, most index fossils are small marine organisms. They live so deep in the ocean that many of them (trilob-ites, graptolites, ammonites, etc.) may still have living representatives alive today, since we have but only slightly explored the ocean bottoms.
There are scientists who believe they will find living trilobites before long (see "Start Search for Living Trilobites, " Science Digest, September 1959); and one living fossil, very close to the trilobite has already been discovered (see "Living Fossil Resembles Long-extinct Tri-lobite, " Science Digest, December 1957).
Many other examples could be cited. Here are two: "In the 19th century, hunters reported tales among Congo tribesmen of a large, cloven-hoofed animal with a giraffe-like head and zebra stripes on its hindquarters and legs. Most zoologists dismissed it as a local legend, but Sir Harry H. Johnston was fascinated when he read about this unknown beast of the deep forest. Years later, he launched an expedition in search of the creature, which the natives called okapi (o-CAP-ee).
"After a nearly disastrous series of misadventures, he finally captured an okapi in 1906. One of the few large mammals discovered in the 20th century, the okapi turned out to be a living representative of a genus (Palaeofragus) known from fossils and believed by zoologists to have been extinct for 30 million years."—*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution (1990), p. 102.
"According to Science News (June 9, 1990, p. 359), a species of dogwood tree, the Diplopanax stachyanthus, was believed by botanists to have died out about 4 million years ago. Apparently only fossil records remained of this tree.
"But now a botanist at Washinton State University has examined the fossil fruit of trees believed to be 15 million years old and found them to be essentially identical to the fruit of a dogwood family discovered in China in 1928.
"But wait a minute. If evolution is driven by the survival of the fittest, then I would expect older and inferior species to die out and be replaced by newer and better evolved species. If that be the case, what is a 15 million year old tree doing hanging around today? It should have died out long ago. Or else the figure of 15 million years is grossly wrong. In either case, something is evidently wrong with the theory of evolution."—Bob Vun Kannon, "A Living Fossil, " The Adventure, September 1990.
The existence of "living fossils" is a serious one for the evolutionist. Evolutionary theory is based on several concepts, two of which are violated here: (1) If a species becomes extinct, it cannot come back to life. (2) Species evolve upward, and can never return back to an earlier form. If that particular species has not existed for the past 15 million years, how then could it exist today?
THE EXTINCT DINOSAUR—Ever since *Charles Lyell, the extinct dinosaur has been considered an outstanding example of evolution. Yet all that it _proves is that animals can become extinct; there are no facts related to dinosaurs which prove evolution (species change)
in life-forms. That which extinct dinosaurs do prove is that the uniformitarian theory (which is the basis of evolution) is incorrect. Some massive catastrophe overwhelmed and destroyed the dinosaurs.
In order for the dinosaur to prove evolution, there would have to be transitional forms leading up to them. But the dinosaurs are like everything else: distinct species.
LIVING DINOSAURS—Evolutionists are anxious that it be thought that no dinosaurs are alive today.
According to their theory, dinosaurs lived during the Me-sozoic era—from about 225 million years ago to 65 million years ago. If some of them were to be found alive today, then evolutionists think this would weaken their theory. But actually that would neither prove nor weaken their theory, since dinosaurs—past or present—present no evidence of the evolutionary process.
In museums all over the world, dinosaur-bone displays are exhibited as a proof of evolution. Their very extinction is supposed to establish it. —But did you know that a living dinosaur has been found?
In April 1977, a Japanese fishing vessel caught a 4,000 pound [1814 kg] dead creature in its nets off the east coast of New Zealand. It was photographed, sketched, carefully measured, and flipper samples were kept for tissue analysis. It has every appearance of being a Plesiosaur, or sea-dwelling dinosaur—which prior to 1977 had only been found in fossil form! Japanese scientists are convinced it was indeed a Plesiosaur. Japan even printed a postage stamp of the creature, in honor of the find. (A photograph and sketch of one is shown on page 107 of Ian Taylor's excellent book, In the Minds of Men.)
But there are other living creatures which answer to the description of "dinosaurs." What is a dinosaur? Very simply, it is a large reptile. Crocodiles, alligators, and caiman are large reptiles.
"Although they are now 99 percent extinct and sel dom exceed twelve feet in length, the American alligator attained lengths of nearly twenty feet as recently as the turn of the century (see National Geographic Magazine, January 1967, p. 137). Only about 500 years ago the aepyornis, a dinosaur bird nearly ten feet [30 cm] tall and weighing half a ton [456 kg], still lived on the island of Madagascar (see National Geographic Magazine, October 1967, p. 493)!"—John C. Whitcomb, World that Perished (1988), p. 30.
"Because the huge skeletons that were built up out of fossilized remnants were clearly reptilian in nature, they were called 'terrible lizards,' which in Greek is dinosauria, by the nineteenth-century zoologist Sir Richard Owen. But the ancient giant reptiles are more closely related to alligators than to lizards, and should have been named dinocrocodilia."—*Asimov's Book of Facts (1979), p. 136.
We have both small and large alligator-type creatures alive today. Some extinct dinosaurs were as small as a chicken, but some modern alligator-type creatures are quite large. Some crocodiles alive today (Crocodylus porosus) can reach a length of 33 feet [100.6 dm]; all are large, heavy, fierce reptiles.
The komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is another large reptile and looks very much like a dinosaur. It was discovered in 1912; and, although evolutionists tried to explain it away by calling the komodo a "lizard," it surely is more than that! Consider the following description:
"The body is covered with small scales; the neck is thick and the head broad and elongated. The huge mouth contains teeth V in [1 cm] long and deeply cleft tongue 12-16 in [30-40 cm] long. The legs are well developed and there are long claws on the toes. The muscular tail has no fracture planes and is somewhat laterally compressed.
"The Komodo dragon is the biggest predator on the islands [in Indonesia] where it lives. It hunts hog, deer, wild pig, macaques, and rats, and digs up the eggs of mound birds . . It can run as fast as a man for short stretches. Smaller specimens are said to lurk in trees above tracks used by game and jump onto the backs of deer or pigs."—*Great Book of the Animal Kingdom (1988), p. 152.
The komodo dragon, truly a reptilian giant, attacks and kills large hogs has a life span of 25 years, is 10 feet [30 dm] long, and has a weight of 350 pounds [158.76 kg]! It is decidedly larger than some of the extinct reptiles, called "dinosaurs." (There was a wide variety of extinct dinosaurs: Some of the extinct ones were quite small; some ran rapidly like ostriches and caught birds with their front paws, and some flew like birds.)
The komodo dragon is the biggest of the monitors, of which there are 31 species. Some are quite large. Most live in the islands north of Australia. One of these, the Papua monitor (Varanus salvadori) is longer than the komodo dragon—over 13 feet in length—although it is not as bulky.
A number of prominent scientists, including *Myer, consider crocodiles and alligators to be "living fossils."
"Nile crocodiles and American alligators belong to a group of reptiles called broad-nosed crocodilians. In the warmer parts of the world, broad-nosed crocodilians are the largest predators to walk on land. They are living fossils in the sense that they resemble ancient forms in the shapes and the ruggedness of their heads and bod-ies."—*Ernst Myer, "Crocodilians as Living Fossils, " in Living Fossils (1984), p. 105.
EXTINCT FOSSILS—What about the fossilized creatures which are now extinct? All that extinct fossils—such as dinosaurs—prove is that animals can die out. Extinction is not evolution, and provides no evidence of evolution.
In addition to the dinosaurs, a number of other animal and plant species became extinct also. Interestingly enough, the extinct species were generally more complex than plants and animals now living!
NONE OF THE FOSSILS OR STRATAARE ANCIENT— Fossils from every level of sedimentary strata have been analyzed by amino acid dating methods (see chapter 6, Inaccurate Dating Methods.)
Scientists have been shocked to discover that both the "youngest" as well as the "oldest" fossils (even those of the Cambrian!) reveal traces of amino acids! This is astounding news, and runs counter to evolutionary theory. This means that. instead of being hundreds of millions of years apart. ALL of the fossil-bearing strata were laid down fairly recently at about the same time! In order to "save the fossils" as a trophy of evolution, there has been speculation that amino acids in the "oldest" fossils are merely contaminants that somehow got there at some recent time.
Shells from as far back as the Jurassic strata, which is supposed to be 135-180 million years old, have been found to have amino acids still locked into protein structures. The amino acid residues came from inside those shells— so the shells cannot be more than a few thousand years old!
Amino acid studies in the fossil-bearing sediments reveal that there are no ancient fossil strata!
HUMAN REMAINS IN ANCIENT DEPOSITS— Near the end of chapter 13, Ancient Man, we will describe a number of instances in which evidences of human beings have been found in what evolutionists consider to be extremely ancient rocks and coal. That information clearly disproves the geologic column dating theories, so we will summarize some of that information here. For more detailed coverage, we refer you to the chapter on Ancient Man.
Modern men and women are supposed to have existed on this earth for only the past 2 million years. whereas the great majority of the sedimentary strata are supposed to extend from 25 million to 570 million years in the past. But there are evidences that people were alive at the time when those strata were laid down. This would either mean that people are billions of years old or that the strata is quite young.
Evidence from chapter 4, Age of the Earth, and the last part of chapter 13, Ancient Man, reveals that both the planet and mankind are quite young—and have not been here over 6,000-10,000 years.
Here is a summary of some of the data found near the end of the Ancient Man chapter:
(1) Guadaloupe Woman: The almost-complete skeleton of a woman was found in limestone which is supposed to be 28 million years old. The limestone sheet, in which the skeleton was encased, was hard, thick, and over a mile [1.609 km] in length.
(2) Calaveras Skull: A completely mineralized human skull was found in Pliocene stratum which supposedly dates to "over 2 million years old."
(3) Human footprints: Human footprints have been found in various sites in the United States, as well as in Laetoli, Africa. These would include:
 Glen Rose tracks: Children's and adult footprints, up to 15 and 21% inches [38-54.6 cm] in length, have been regularly found in Early Cretaceous rock throughout most of this century on the former riverbed of the Pulaxy River in Texas. Children's tracks always accompany those of adults, tracks go across very large dinosaur tracks and have been found above them, and all tracks are running. These tracks are in Early Cretaceous formations, which date to "120 million" years ago.
 Antelope Springs tracks: William Meister and others have found sandaled human tracks stepping on trilobites in Cambrian strata (570 million years old), in Utah.
(4) Evidence in coal: Human remains and relics of various kinds have been found in coal, dating to millions of years ago. This includes a human skull, two giant human teeth, a gold chain, gold thread, steel nail, metal screw, wedge-shaped object, and an iron pot.
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