Bumpus' Sparrows (1898). Herman Bumpus was a zoologist at Brown University. During the winter of 1898, by accident he carried out one of the only field experiments in natural selection. One cold morning, finding 136 stunned house sparrows on the ground, he tried to nurse them back to health. Of the total, 72 revived and 64 died. He weighed and carefully measured all of them, and found that those closest to the average survived best. This frequently quoted research study is another evidence that the animal or plant closest to the original species is the most hardy. Sub-species variations will not be as hardy, and evolution entirely across species (if the DNA code would permit it) would therefore be too weakened to survive (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 61).
*Hugo deVries (1848-1935) was a Dutch botanist and one of the three men who, in 1900, rediscovered Mendel's paper on the law of heredity.
One day while working with primroses, deVries thought he had discovered a new species. This made headlines. He actually had found a new variety (sub-species) of the primrose, but deVries conjectured that perhaps his "new species" had suddenly sprung into existence as a "mutation." He theorized that new species "saltated" (leaped), that is, continually spring into existence. His idea is called the saltation theory.
This was a new idea; and, during the first half of the 20th century, many evolutionary biologists, finding absolutely no evidence supporting "natural selection," switched from natural selection ("Darwinism") to mutations ("neo-Darwinism") as the mechanism by which the theorized cross-species changes occurred.
Later in this book, we will discover that mutations cannot produce evolution either, for they are always harmful. In addition, decades of experimentation have revealed they never produce new species.
In order to prove the mutation theory, deVries and other researchers immediately began experimentation on fruit flies; and it has continued ever since—but totally without success in producing new species.
Ironically, deVries' saltation theory was based on an observational error. In 1914 *Edward Jeffries discovered that deVries' primrose was just a new variety, not a new species.
Decades later, it was discovered that most plant varieties are produced by variations in gene factors, rarely by mutations. Those caused by gene variations may be strong (although not as strong as the average original), but those varieties produced by mutations are always weak and have a poor survival rate. See chapter 10, Mutations, for much, much more on the mutation problem.
* Walter S. Sutton and *T. Boveri (1902) independently discovered chromosomes and the linkage of genetic characters. This was only two years after Mendel's research was rediscovered. Scientists were continually learning new facts about the fixity of the species.
* Thomas Hunt Morgan (1886-1945) was an American biologist who developed the theory of the gene. He found that the genetic determinants were present in a definite linear order in the chromosomes and could be somewhat "mapped." He was the first to work intensively with the fruit fly, Drosophila (*Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, 1984, p. 70). But research with fruit flies, and other creatures, has proved a total failure in showing mutations to be a mechanism for cross-species change (*Ri-chard B. Goldschmidt, "Evolution, as Viewed by One Geneticist, " American Scientist, January 1952, p. 94).
*H.J. Muller (1990-1967). Upon learning of the 1927 discovery that X-rays, gamma rays, and various chemicals could induce an extremely rapid increase of mutations in the chromosomes of test animals and plants, Muller pioneered in using X-rays to greatly increase the mutation rate in fruit flies. But all he and the other researchers found was that mutations were always harmful (*H.J. Muller, Time, November 11, 1946, p. 38; *E.J. Gardner, Principles of Genetics, 1964, p. 192; *Theodosius
Dobzhansky, Genetics and the Origin of the Species, 1951, p. 73).
*Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was deeply indebted to the evolutionary training he received in Germany as a young man. He fully accepted it, as well as *Haeckel's recapitulation theory. Freud began his Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1916) with Haeckel's premise. "Each individual somehow recapitulates in an abbreviated form the entire development of the human race" (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 177).
Freud's "Oedipus complex" was based on a theory of "primal horde" he developed about a "mental complex" that caveman families had long ago. His theories of anxiety complexes, and "oral" and "anal" stages, etc., were based on his belief that our ancestors were savage.
*H.G Wells (1866-1946), the science fiction pioneer based his imaginative writings on evolutionary teachings. He had received a science training under Professor *Thomas H. Huxley, *Darwin's chief defender.
*Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), like a variety of other evolutionist leaders before and after, was an avid spiritist. Many of his mystery stories were based on evolutionary themes.
*George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was so deeply involved in evolutionary theory, that he openly declared that he wrote his plays to teach various aspects of the theory (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 461).
Piltdown Man (1912). In 1912, parts of a jaw and skull were found in England and dubbed "Piltdown Man." News of it created a sensation. The report of a dentist, in 1916, who said someone had filed down the teeth was ignored. As we will learn below, in 1953 the fact that it was a total hoax was uncovered. This, like all the later evidences that our ancestors were part ape, has been questioned or repudiated by reputable scientists. See chapter 13, Ancient Man.
World War I (1917-1918). Darwinism basically taught that there is no moral code, our ancestors were savage, and civilization only progressed by violence against others. It therefore led to extreme nationalism, racism, and warfare through Nazism and Fascism. Evolution was declared to involve "natural selection"; and, in the struggle to survive, the fittest will win out at the expense of their rivals. *Frederich von Bernhard, a German military officer, wrote a book in 1909 extolling evolution and appealing to Germany to start another war. *Heinrich von Treitsche, a Prussian militarist, loudly called for war by Germany in order to fulfill its "evolutionary destiny" (*Heinrich G. von Treitsche, Politics, Vol. 1, pp. 66-67). Their teachings were fully adopted by the German government, and it only waited for a pretext to start the war (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 59).
Communist Darwinism. *Marx and *Engels' acceptance of evolutionary theory made *Darwin's theory the "scientific" basis of all later communist ideologies (*Rob-ert M. Young, "The Darwin Debate, " in Marxism Today, Vol. 26, April 1982, p. 21). Communist teaching declared that evolutionary change, which taught class struggle, came by revolution and violent uprisings. Communist dogma declares that Lamarckism (inheritance of acquired characteristics) is the mechanism by which this is done. Mendelian genetics was officially outlawed in Russia in 1948, since it was recognized as disproving evolution. Communist theorists also settled on "synthetic spe-ciation" instead of natural selection or mutations as the mechanism for species change (*L.B. Halstead, "Museum of Errors, " in Nature, November 20, 1980, p. 208). This concept is identical to the sudden change theory of *Goldschmidt and *Gould, which we will mention later.
*John Dewey (1859-1952) was another influential thought leader. A vigorous Darwinist, Dewey founded and led out in the "progressive education movement"
which so greatly affected U.S. educational history. But it was nothing more than careful animal training (*Samuel L. Blumenfeld, NEA: Trojan Horse in American Education, 1984, p. 43). The purpose was to indoctrinate the youth into evolution, humanism, and collectivism. In 1933, Dewey became a charter member of the American Humanist Association and its first president. Its basic statement of beliefs, published that year as the Humanist Manifesto, became the unofficial framework of teaching in most school textbooks. The evolutionists recognized that they must gain control of all public education (*Sir Julian Huxley, quoted in *Sol Tax and *Charles Callender, eds., Evolution after Darwin, 3 vols., 1960). Historically, American education was based on morals and standards; but Dewey declared that, in order to be "progressive," education must leave "the past" and "evolve upward" to new, modern concepts.
The Scopes Trial (July 10 to July 21, 1925) was a powerful aid to the cause of evolution, yet scientific discoveries were not involved. That was fortunate, since, except for a single tooth (later disproved), and a few other frauds, the evolutionists had nothing worthwhile to present (*The World's Most Famous Court Trial: A Complete Stenographic Report, 1925).
The ACLU (* American Civil Liberties Union) had been searching for someone they could use to test the Butler Act, which forbade the teaching of evolution in the public schools in Tennessee. *John Scopes (24 at the time) volunteered for the job. He later privately admitted that he had never actually taught evolution in class, so the case was based on a fraud; he spent the time teaching them football maneuvers (*John Scopes, Center of the Storm, 1967, p. 60). But no matter, the ACLU wanted to so humiliate the State of Tennessee, that no other state would ever dare oppose the evolutionists. The entire trial, widely reported as the "Tennessee Monkey Trial," was
SCOPES TRIAL—Evolutionists turned the Dayton trial into a ridiculous circus in order to frighten later State governments into banning creationism from their school curricula.
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