presented to the public as something of a comic opera. (A trained ape was even sent in, to walk around on a chain in the streets of Dayton.) But the objective was deadly serious, and they succeeded very well. Although the verdict was against Scopes, America's politicians learned the lesson: Do not oppose the evolutionists.
The Scopes trial, the first event nationally broadcast over the radio, was a major victory for evolutionists throughout the world. Ridicule, side issues, misinformation, and false statements were used to win the battle.
Nebraska Man Debunked (1922, 1928). In 1922 a single molar tooth was found and named Hesperopithecus, or "Nebraska Man." An artist was told to make an "apeman" picture based on the tooth, which went around the world. Nebraska Man was a key evidence at the Scopes trial in July 1925 (The evolutionists had little else to offer!). *Grafton Smith, one of those involved in publicizing Nebraska Man was knighted for his efforts in making known this fabulous find. When paleontologists returned to the site in 1928, they found the rest of the skeleton,—and discovered the tooth belonged to "an extinct pig"! (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 322). In 1972, living specimens of the same pig were found in Paraguay.
George McCready Price (1870-1963) had a master's level degree, but not in science. Yet he was the staunch-est opponent of evolution in the first half of the 20th century. He produced 38 books and numerous articles to various journals. Price was the first person to carefully research into the accumulated findings of geologists, and he discovered that they had no evidence supporting their claims about strata and fossils. Since his time, the situation has not changed (*R. Milner, Encyclopedia of Evolution, 1990, p. 194).
Along with mutations, the study of fossils and strata ranks as the leading potential evidences supporting evolutionary claims. But no transitional species have been found. Ancient species (aside from the extinct ones) were like those today, except larger, and strata are generally missing and at times switched—with "younger" strata below "older." Because there is no fossil/strata evidence supporting evolution, the museums display dinosaurs and other extinct animals as proof that evolution has occurred. But extinction is not an evidence of evolution. Much more on this in chapter 12, Fossils and Strata.
* Oliver Wendel Holmes, Jr. (1841-1935), powerfully affected the U.S. Supreme Court in both viewpoint and legal precedents. He was forceful in his positions and a leading justice for 30 years. The prevalent view since his time is that law is a product of evolution and should continually evolve in accord with social policy. But this, of course, keeps taking America further and further from the U.S. Constitution.
*Vladimir (Nikolai) Lenin (1870-1924) and * Josef Stalin (1879-1953). Lenin was an ardent evolutionist who, in 1918, violently overthrew the Russian government and founded the Soviet Union.
According to *Yaroslavsky, a close friend of his, at an early age, while attending a Christian Orthodox school, Stalin began to read *Darwin and became an atheist (*E. Yaroslavsky, Landmarks in the Life of Stalin, 1940, pp. 8-9). Stalin was head of the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1953. During those years, he was responsible for the death of millions of Russians who refused to yield to his slave-state tactics. The Soviet Union under Stalin was an outstanding example of Darwinist principles extended to an entire nation.
*Austin H. Clark (1880-1954), an ardent evolutionist, was on the staff of the Smithsonian Institute from 1908 to 1950 and a member of several important scientific organizations. A prominent scientist, he authored several books and about 600 scientific articles. But, after years of honestly trying to deal with the fact that there is no evidence of cross-species change, in 1930 he wrote an astounding book, The New Evolution: Zoogenesis. In it, he cited fact after fact, disproving the possibility that major types of plants and animals could have evolved from one another. The book was breathtaking and could not be answered by any evolutionist. His alternate proposal, zoogenesis, was that every major type of plant and animal must have evolved—not from one another—but directly from dirt and water! (*A.H. Clark, The New Evolution: Zoogenesis, 1930, pp. 211, 100, 189, 196, 114). The evolutionary world was stunned into silence, for he was an expert who knew all the reasons why trans-species evolution was impossible.
*Richard Goldschmidt (1878-1958). The same year that *Clark wrote his book (1930), Goldschmidt gave up also. An earnest evolutionist, he had dedicated his life to proving it by applying X-rays and chemicals to fruit flies at the University of California, Berkeley, and producing large numbers of mutations in them. After 25 exhausting years, in which he had worked with more generations of fruit flies than humans and their ape ancestors are conjectured to have lived on our planet, Goldschmidt decided that he must figure out a different way that cross-species evolution could occur. For the next ten years, as he continued his fruit fly research, he gathered additional evidence of the foolishness of evolutionary theory;—and, in 1940, wrote his book, The Material Basis of Evolution, in which he exploded point after point in the ammunition box of the theory. He literally tore it to pieces (*Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried, 1974, p. 152). No evolutionist could answer him. Like them, he was a confirmed evolutionary atheist, but he was honestly facing the facts. After soundly destroying their theory, he announced his new concept: a megaevolution in which one life-form suddenly emerged completely out of a different one! He called them "hopefulmonsters." One day a fish laid some eggs, and some of them turned into a frog, a snake laid an egg, and a bird hatched from it!
Goldschmidt asked for even bigger miracles than A.H. Clark had proposed! (* Steven M. Stanley, Macroevolution: Pattern and Process, 1979, p. 159).
American Humanist Association (1933). "Humanism" is the modern word for "atheism." As soon as it was formed in 1933, the AHA began working closely with science federations, to promote evolutionary theory, and with the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) to provoke legal action in the courts forcing Americans to accept evolutionary beliefs. Signatories included *Julian Huxley (*T.H. Huxley's grandson), *John Dewey, *Margaret Sanger, *H.J. Muller, *Benjamin Spock, *Erich Froom, and *Carl Rogers (*American Humanist Association, promotional literature).
*Trofim Lysenko (1893-1976) rose to power in the 1930s in the USSR by convincing the government that he could create a State Science that combined Darwinian evolution theory in science, animal husbandry, and agriculture with Marxist theory. With *Stalin's hearty backing, Lysenko became responsible for the death of thousands, including many of Russia's best scientists. Lysenko banned Mendelian genetics as a bourgeois heresy. He was ousted in 1965 when his theories produced agricultural disaster for the nation. (He claimed to be able to change winter wheat into spring wheat, through temperature change, and wheat into rye in one generation.)
*Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) was chancellor of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. He carefully studied the writings of *Darwin and *Nietzsche. Hitler's book, Mein Kampf, was based on evolutionary theory (*Sir Arthur Keith, Evolution and Ethics, 1947, p. 28). The very title of the book ("My Struggle" [to survive and overcome]) was copied from a Darwinian expression. Hitler believed he was fulfilling evolutionary objectives by eliminating "undesirable individuals and inferior races" in order to produce Germany's "Master Race" (*LarryAzar, Twentieth Century in Crisis, 1990, p. 180). (Notice that the "mas ter race" people always select the race they are in as the best one.)
* Benito Mussolini (1883-1945), the Italian Fascist dictator, was also captivated by *Darwin and *Niet-zsche; and Neitzsche said he got his ideas from Darwin (*R.E.D. Clark, Darwin: Before and After, 1948, p. 115). Mussolini believed that violence is basic to social transformation (*Encyclopedia Britannica, 1962, Vol. 16, p. 27).
Coelacanth Discovered (1938). It was once an "index fossil, used to date a sedimentary strata. Evolutionists declared it as having been dead for 70 million years. If their strata theory was correct, no living specimens could occur, since no coelacanth fossils had been found in the millions of years of higher strata. But then, on December 25, 1938, a trawler fishing off South Africa brought up one that was 5 feet in length. More were found later. Many other discoveries helped disprove the evolutionists' fossil/strata theories. Even living creatures like the trilobite have been found! (* "Living Fossil Resembles Long-extinct Trilobite, " Science Digest, December 1957).
Hiroshima (1945), is an evolutionist's paradise; for it is filled with people heavily irradiated, which—accord-ing to evolutionary mutation theory—should be able to produce children which are new, different, and a more exalted species. But this has not happened. Only injury and death resulted from the August 6, 1945, nuclear explosion. Mutations are always harmful and frequently lethal within a generation or two (*Animal Species and Evolution, p. 170, *H.J. Muller, Time, November 11, 1946, p. 38).
First Mechanism Changeover (1940s). *Darwin originally wrote that random activity naturally selects itself into improvements (a concept which any sensible person will say is totally impossible). In a later book (Descent of Man, 1871), Darwin abandoned "natural selec tion" as hopeless, and returned to Lamarckism (the scientifically discredited inheritance of acquired characteristics; if you build strong muscles, your son will inherit them). But evolutionists remained faithful to Darwin's original mechanism (natural selection) for decades. They were called "Darwinists." But, by the 1940s, many were switching over to mutations as the mechanism of cross-species change. Its advocates were called "neo-Darwin-ists." The second changeover would come in the 1980s.
Radiocarbon dating (1946). *Willard Libby and his associates discovered carbon 14 (C 14) as a method for the dating of earlier organic materials. But later research revealed that its inaccuracy increases in accordance with the actual age of the material (*C.A. Reed, "Animal Domestication in the Prehistoric Near East, " in Science, 130, 1959, p. 1630; University of California at Los Angeles, "On the Accuracy of Radiocarbon Dates, " in Geochronicle, 2, 1966 [Libby's own laboratory]).
Big Bang Hypothesis (1948) Astronomers were totally buffaloed as to where matter and stars came from. In desperation, *George Gamow and two associates dreamed up the astonishing concept that an explosion of nothing produced hydrogen and helium, which then shot outward, then turned and began circling and pushing itself into our present highly organized stars and galactic systems. This far-fetched theory has repeatedly been opposed by a number of scientists (*G. Burbidge, "Was There Really a Big Bang?" in Nature 233, 1971, pp. 36, 39). By the 1980s, astronomers which continued to oppose the theory began to be relieved of their research time at major observatories ("Companion Galaxies Match Quasar Redshifts: The Debate Goes On, " Physics Today, 37:17, December 1984). In spite of clear evidence that the theory is unscientific and unworkable, evolutionists refuse to abandon it.
Steady State Universe Theory (1948). In 1948, *Fred Hoyle, working with *Hermann Bondi and *Thomas Gold, proposed this theory as an alternative to the Big Bang. It declared that matter is continually "blipping" into existence throughout the universe (*Peter Pocock and *Pat Daniels, Galaxies, p. 114; *Fred Hoyle, Frontiers of Astronomy, 1955, pp. 317-318). We will learn that in 1965, the theory was abandoned. *Hoyle said it disagreed with several scientific facts.
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