Heart Mountain

Heart Mountain is a prominent mountain located in the Pacific Northwest. Yet all of it is said to be far "younger" than the rock it rests uponl When men must move mountains in order to salvage a theory. it is time to rexamine the theory itself.

"We may even demonstrate that strata have turned completely upside down if we can show that fossils in what are the uppermost layers ought properly to lie underneath those in the beds below them."—*A. Geikie, Textbook of Geology (1963), p. 387.

"Since their earliest recognition, the existence of large overthrusts has presented a mechanical paradox that has never been satisfactorily resolved."—*M.K. Hubbert and *W.W. Riley, "Role of Fluid Pressure in Mechanics of Over-thrusting Faulting, " in Bulletin of Geological Society of America, February 1959, pp. 115-117.

If evolutionary geologists cannot maintain the truth of their overthrust theory, they will lose the foundation proof for evolution: the fossils as datable evidence for long ages of time. Fossils constitute a proof of evolution only because more recent strata are supposed be lying on top of older strata.

"Fossils have furnished, through their record of the evolution of life on this planet, an amazingly effective key to the relative positioning of strata in widely separated regions and from continent to continent."—*H.D. Hedberg, in Bioscience, September 1979.

HEART MOUNTAIN—Here is one of many examples of an overthrust: The Heart Mountain Thrust in Wyoming is a triangular area. 30 miles [48.2 km] wide by 60 miles [96.5 km] long. One apex presses against the northeast corner of Yellowstone Park. Within this gigantic overthrust are 50 separate blocks of Paleozoic strata (Ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian). They are resting horizontally and as though they belonged there— but ON TOP OF Eocene beds which are supposed to be 250 million years younger! Photographs of the fault line. separating the Paleozoic strata from the Eocene, reveal it to be perfectly snug and normal. No evidence of massive crushing of rock beneath the fault line is to be seen (as would be seen if the upper "younger" strata slid up and over the lower "older" strata).

Searching for the area from which this gigantic overthrust horizontally slid—the scientists could not locate it. They could not find any place where the top layer slid from!

"The Heart Mountain thrust has long been structurally perplexing because there are no known structural roots or source from which it could have been derived. Furthermore, there is no known surface fault or fault zone within or adjoining from which the thrust sheet could have been derived."—*Op. cit, p. 592.

One expert, *Pierce said the solution was "gravity" (op. cit., p. 598). But, as with many others, this particular overthrust is an entire mountain! Heart Mountain is a high mountain. not a plain nor a low valley. It is a horizontal bed of hundreds of feet of rock resting high above the Wyoming plains. overlooking them. It would require some special type of gravity to put those billions upon billions of pounds of rock up there—and do it all so carefully that it rests there, fitted perfectly together. This 30 x 60 mile [48.8-96.6 km] triangle of very thick rock is supposed to have wandered there ("gravitated there" is how some experts describe it) in some miraculous way from somewhere else—and then climbed up on top of all the other rocks in the plains beneath it!

LEWIS OVERTHRUST—The Lewis overthrust in Montana. first discovered in 1901. is massive in size. It is another example of the overthrust problem.

"The Lewis overthrust of Montana has a length of approximately 135 miles [217.25 km] and a horizontal displacement of about 15 miles (24 km). Its fault plane dips to the southwest at an angle of about 3 degrees."— * William D. Thornbury, Principles of Geomorphology (1954), p. 268.

Since * Thornbury wrote the above lines, additional research has disclosed that the Lewis overthrust is 3 miles [4.8279 km] deep. 135 miles [217 km] long. and 35 to 40 miles [56.3-64.4 km] wide! (See *C.P. Ross and *Ri chard Rezak, "The Rocks and Fossils of Glacier National Park, " in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 294-K, 1959, pp. 422, 424.)

That is a lot of rock! In order to protect their fossil strata theory, the evolutionists soberly tell us that ALL THAT ROCk moved sideways many miles from somewhere else.

This massive overthrust is truly vast in size. Here is how to locate it: On a map of North America, (1) place a penciled "X" on a point a little north of Crowsnest Mountain on Highway 3 on the border of British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. (2) Place a second "X" a little below Cut Bank, Montana. (3) Then go west from that second "X" to the southern border of Glacier National Park, and include all of it to its southwestern border; place a third "X." (4) Now go north and include all of Glacier National Park to its northwest border; place a fourth "X." Now draw lines connecting all the "Xs." All that territory in the Pacific Northwest—with a thickness up to 3 miles [4.8 km] deep— is supposed to have traveled there from somewhere else!

Not only does the Lewis Overthrust include all of Glacier National Park and Chief Mountain, but what do you think is beneath it?—undisturbed shale. which is hardened clay that has never been disturbed. Shale crumbles easily when shattered or placed under grinding sideways pressure. That immense area of nearly horizontal rock is supposed to have slid sideways for a great distance over fragile shale. without ever having disturbed it!

"The fault plane [as viewed from the Bow Valley] is nearly horizontal and the two formations, viewed from the valley, appear to succeed one another conformably. The cretaceous shales [hardened clay beneath the Lewis overthrust] are bent sharply toward the east in a number of places, but with this exception have suffered little by the sliding of the limestone over them, and their comparatively undisturbed condition seems hardly compatible with the extreme faulting [horizontal sliding] which was necessary to bring them into their present posi tion."—*J.L. Kuip, "Flood Geology, " in Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation, January 1950, pp. 1-15, quoting *R.G. McConnell, a Canadian geologist.

The Lewis overthrust should have pushed a great mass of broken rock (rubble or breccia) along in front of it and on its sides as it traveled sideways overland. But it did not do this; there is none there. That in itself is a proof that the Lewis overthrust did not move sideways!

Commenting on the fact that there is an "absence of rubble or breccia" pushed up by the Lewis fault when it supposedly slid sideways for miles, *Ross and *Rezak, two experienced geologists, then express their own doubts: "Such a slab moving over ground, as is now believed to have existed, should have scarred and broken the hills and have itself been broken to a greater or less extent, depending on local conditions. No evidence of either of these things has been found."—*C.P. Ross and *Rich-ardRezak, Op. cit., p. 424.

A University of California scientist personally examined the point of contact where the Lewis fault rests on the rock beneath it, and made the following statement.

"At the actual contact line, very thin layers of shale were always present . . A thin band of soft shale sticks to the upper block of Altyn limestone. This seems to clearly indicate that, just before the Altyn limestone was deposited . . a thin water-like one-eighth to one-sixteenth inch layer of shale was deposited . . Careful study of the various locations showed no evidence of any grinding or sliding action or slicken-sides such as one would expect to find on the hypothesis of a vast overthrust.

"Another amazing fact was the occurrence of two four-inch layers of Altyn limestone intercalated with [inserted between] Cretaceous shale . . Furthermore these were cemented both to the upper Altyn limestone and shale. Likewise careful study of these intercalations showed not the slightest evidence of abrasive action such as one would expect to find if these were shoved forward in between layers of shale as the overthrust theory demands."— Walter E. Lammerts, personal letter dated November 27, 1957 to H.M. Morris, quoted in J.C. Whitcomb and H.M. Morris, The Genesis Flood (1961), pp. 189-191.

Fantastically large frictional forces would have to be overcome in sliding these mountainous masses of rock horizontally. No one has figured out how it could have been done. It is far beyond the laws of physics. But, undaunted, some evolutionists said it could happen if its undersurface was wet! One scientist (*Terzaghi) did some testing and found that water would actually increase frictional drag. not lessen it.

The Lewis Overthrust consists of six layers of rock which are supposed to have slid sideways over "younger" strata. Those overthrust layers are three miles thick!

"This strata mix-up was first identified by Willis in 1901, who named it the Lewis Overthrust. Let us now consider the overriding rock strata which forms the supposed thrust sheet. Starting at the bottom of the belt strata, the Altyn Limestone has an average thickness of 2300 feet [701 m]. The Appekunny above it is 3000 feet [914 m] thick. This continues on up until the rock column reaches a minimum height of three miles. These overriding rocks form what is called the 'Belt Series.' "—John W. Read, Fossils, Strata, and Evolution (1979), p. 30.

The Lewis Overthrust is 135 miles [217 km] long. and its maximum thickness is 3 miles [4.8 km]!

This is what we find in the "belt strata" of the Lewis Overthrust, as viewed in Glacier National Park. The following list is from top to bottom of the Lewis Overthrust:

Kintla Argillite. This is found on some mountaintops.

Shepard Limestone. This limestone is 600 feet [183 m] in thickness.

Siyeh Limestone. This second layer of limestone is nearly a mile [1.6 km] thick, and generally over 4,000 feet [1,219 m] from top to bottom!

GrinnellArgillite. Argil is a type of clay; argillite is a frag ile shale. This stratum is over half a mile [1.609 km] in thickness: 3,000 feet [914 m].

Appekunny Argillite. This second layer of shale is over 3,000 feet [914 m] in thickness.

Altyn Limestone. Limestone is composed primarily of calcium carbonate which is not as strong as many other rocks. This layer averages nearly half-a-mile [8045 km] in thickness: 2,300 feet [701 m].

We have provided you with a detailed description of the Lewis Overthrust, in order to demonstrate the impossibility of the overthrust theory. But there are many other overthrusts elsewhere in the world. If the overthrust theory is incorrect—then the entire concept of the "geological column" is wrong,—and the rock strata, with their enclosed fossils, were NOT laid down over a period of long ages!

THE MATTERHORN—Everyone has seen photographs of the triangular shaped Matterhorn. It lies in the Pennine Alps, on the border between Valais, Switzerland, and the Piedmont region of Italy. Located 40 miles [64.4 km] east of Mount Blanc, the Matterhorn is one of most spectacular mountains in the world. It looks like a gigantic, steeply pointed pyramid, and is 14,685 feet (4,476 m] in height.

Did you know that all of the Matterhorn—from bottom to top—is a gigantic overthrust! Evolutionary geologists tell us that the entire mountain moved there— horizontally—from many miles away!

Enormous mountains have to be moved in order to bolster up the flimsy theory of evolution.

The Matterhorn is supposed to have pushed its way sideways from some 30 to 60 miles [48.2-96.6 km] away. Traveling overland those long distances (probably stopping once in a while to catch its breath), it successfully arrived without leaving any evidence of the grinding crunch it ought to have left in its wake. Yet the Matterhorn is only one of a number of Swiss mountains that are out of the standard geological order. They all had to be muscled into position from leagues away.

THE MYTHEN—Another massive mountain in the Swiss Alps is the Mythen Peak. This one is really a marathon runner. The Mythen ran all the way from Africa into Switzerland! (It probably got wet as it went through the Mediterranean Sea.) In this mountain, you will find the Eocene strata (55 million years old) lying under Tri-assic (225 million), Jurassic (180 million), and Cretaceous (130 million). According to the theory, the Eocene is supposed to be on top of the Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Trias-sic,—but instead it is under all three!

THE APPALACHIANS—As with many mountain ranges, geologists always thought that the Appalachians (which include most of the mountains in Eastern America) were upthrust mountains—pushed up from below. But then they made a shocking discovery: Underneath the entire Appalachians is some supposedly "younger" strata. The experts say that the entire Appalachian range ran sideways under the Atlantic Ocean, climbed out onto shore, and journeyed on over to its present location. If you will look on a physical map of the United States, you will find that the Appalachians extend from above Maine to Birmingham, Alabama.

"The Appalachians, which run from Newfoundland to Alabama, were probably formed not by upward thrusting, as previously believed, but by a thick conglomerate of oceanic and continental rock that was shoved horizontally at least 250 kilometers [155.3 mi] over existing sediments . .

"Beneath that jumble [of the Appalachians], lies a younger, flat, thin 1-5 km [.62-3.1 mi] thick layer of sediments that 'no one thought existed.' The unbroken, wide extent of the layer . . and its similarity to sediments found on the East Coast indicate that the mountains 'could not have been pushed up.' "—*Science News, 1979.

A small but excellent 64-page booklet, that is filled with pictures and diagrams that focus on the "mixed-up strata" problem, is Fossils, Strata, and Evolution (1979), by John G. Read.

Walter Lammerts spent years collecting geological articles dealing with the problem of overthrusts. He has published eight lists documenting 198 wrong-order formations in the United States alone. (W.E. Lammerts, "Recorded Instances of Wrong-Order Formations of Presumed Overthrusts in the United States: Part 1-8," Creation Research Society Quarterly, eight issues between September 1984 and June 1987.)

OVERTHRUSTS DISPROVED—Common sense disproves the evolutionary theory of overthrusts (sideways movement of immense rock masses from miles away), but three researchers decided in 1980 to check it out scientifically. They disproved the entire overthrust theory, as they showed that the terrific lateral pressures involved in moving these great masses of rock sideways—would produce so many fractures in the overthrust rock as to entirely crumble it!

Such abnormally high pressures would be involved, that the process of sideways movements of these great rock masses would be impossible. In scientific language, here is how they described the problem:

"If we assume that rocks have no tensile strength . . then when the pore fluid pressure exceeds the least com-pressive stress, fractures will form normal to that stress direction. These fractures limit pore pressure . . We suggest that pore pressure may never get high enough to allow gravity gliding . . the rocks might fail in vertical hydrofracture first."—*J.H. Willemin, *P.L. Guth, and *K. V. Hodges, "High Fluid Pressure, Isothermal Surfaces, and the Initiation of Nappe Movement," in Geology, September 1980, p. 406.

"It seems mechanically implausible that great sheets of rock could have moved across nearly flat surfaces for appreciable distances."— *Philip B. King, "The Anatomy and Habitat of Low-Angle Thrust Faults, " in American Journal of Science, Vol. 258-A, 1960, p. 115.

As noted earlier, "thrust faults" is another name for overthrusts.

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