1 On the Greek-speaking East, see CHLGEMP, Part VI.
2 See P. Courcelle, 'Etude critique sur les commentaires de Boece (ixe-xe siecles)', AHDLMA (1939), 5-40, 53, and T. Gregory, Platonismo medievale (Rome, 1958), pp. 1-15. Adalbold, Bishop of Utrecht (d. 1026), takes that view in his commentary and is able to see Boethius as a Christian philosopher.
3 In Aquinas' day, 'the Philosopher' was normally Aristotle.
4 See J. Swanson, John of Wales (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 167ff. on the imitation of the virtues of the philosophers.
5 The Works of Gilbert Crispin, ed. A. S. Abulafia and G. R. Evans (London, 1986), pp. 61-2.
6 Dialogus inter Philosophum, ludaeum et Christianum, ed. R. Thomas (Stuttgart, 1970), p. 41.
7 See R. W. Southern, St Anselm and his Biographer (Cambridge, 1963).
11 See my Old Arts and New Theology (Oxford, 1978) for examples.
12 Arnulf describes various ways in which philosophy can be divided.Its speculative branch is concerned with the causes of things; its practical with the student's manner of life, and how to avoid vices and cultivate virtues. Or one may say that philosophy has three branches: natural science, mathematics and the study of the divine. These are of its essence, although it may touch on a variety of accidental matters, such as language and virtue. Or, if philosophy is taken to include all knowledge which meets human needs, it can be divided into the liberal arts (which serve the soul's needs) and the mechanical arts (which serve those of the body) (Lafleur, pp. 314-17).
Beside Arnulfs list might be set those of several of his contemporaries. One, writing about 1230-40, suggests that the final cause of philosophy is the knowledge of all that is; its efficient cause, man's complete knowledge of himself, its material cause, the knowledge of divine and human matters together with the principles of right living; its formal cause, assimilation to the Creator by human virtue. Another, also anonymous, writing perhaps five years before Arnulf, gives, in a less contrived framework, a selection of the definitions Arnulf cites (see Lafleur, pp. 181, 258). Alternative arrangements of the same elements are also found: a division into mechanical and liberal studies in which philosophia liberalis is divided into speculative (the arts of language) and practical (the cultivation of virtue) (Lafleur, p. 18). This is with respect to the 'knower'. With respect to the 'knowledge' and the manner in which it may be 'knowable', a division between theoretica and practica is proposed. The first 'knows' the substance of things by their universal causes; the second knows their 'qualities' or modes of operating, and that is practica (Lafleur, p. 183). 'Natural philosophy' is sometimes simply given its Aristotelian and Boethian division into physics, mathematics and metaphysics or theology (Lafleur, pp. 183-4 and 261). Elsewhere we find philosophy grouped with mechanica and magica under humana scientia, and set over against theologia, which is the divina scientia (Lafleur, p. 259).
13 Jean Gerson, De Erroribus circa Artem Magicam (1402), Oeuvres complètes, X (Paris, 1973), p. 78.
18 Gerson, Trilogium Astrologiae Theologiatae (1419), Oeuvres complètes, X, p. 90.
19 See H. Chadwick, Boethius (Oxford, 1981), p. 110.
20 Jean Gerson, Oeuvres complètes, IX (Paris, 1973), pp. 188-90.
21 William of Auxerre, Summa Aurea, ed. J. Ribaillier (Paris/Rome, 1980), Spicilegfum Bonaventurianum, XVI, p. 15, and see J. de Ghellinck, Le Mouvement théologique du xiisiècle (Brussels/Paris, 1948), pp. 279-84 on I Peter 3.15.
25 R. Holte, Béatitude et sagesse (Paris, 1962), p. 97.
26 Chartularium Universitatis Parisiensis, I.47-8, in L. Thorndike, University Records (New York, 1944), no. 11, p. 22.
27 M. Grabmann, 'I divieti ecclesiastici di Aristotele sotto Innocenzo III e Gregorio IX', Miscellanea Historiae Pontificiase, 5 (1941), 83.
28 G. Post, 'Philosophantes and Philosophi', AHDLMA (1954), 135-8.
29 Contra Quatuor Labyrinthos Franciae, ed. P. Glorieux, AHDLMA (1952), 270ff.
30 'La Somme "Quoniam homines" d'Alain de Lille', ed. P. Glorieux,AHDLMA (1952), 119 and cf. J. Leclerq, 'Un témoignage du xiii siècle sur la nature de la théologie', AHDLMA (1942), 301-21.
3 3 Roger Bacon, Metaphysica, ed. R. Steele, Opera Hactenus Inedita, I (London, 1905,
. 1) and Compendium Studii Theologiae, ed. H. Rashdall (Aberdeen, 1911), p. 25.
35 See R. Hissette, Enquête sur les219 Articles condamnés à Paris le 7Mars 1277 (Paris, 1977).
36 See Jerome, Letter 22, Select Letters, ed. F. A. Wright (London, 1933), pp. 126-7.
37 'I divieti', 61 and see E. Warichez, Etienne de Tournai et son temps, 1128-1203 (Tournai/Paris, 1936), p. 91.
38 'I divieti', 63 and G. Lacombe, Prepositini Cancellarii Parisiensis, 1206-10, Opera Omnia, Bibliothèque Thomiste, XI (Paris, 1927), pp. 41ff.
40 See Holte, Béatitude et sagesse, p. 180.
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