Fee, Gordon. God's Empowering Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Letters of Paul.

Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1994. Ferguson, Sinclair B. The Holy Spirit. Contours of Christian Theology. Downers

Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1996. Green, Michael. I Believe in the Holy Spirit. Revised edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989.

Karkkainen, Veli-Matti. Pneumatology: The Holy Spirit in Ecumenical, International, and Contextual Perspective. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2002. Pinnock, Clark. Flame of Love: A Theology of the Holy Spirit. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1996.

Smail, Thomas. Reflected Glory: The Spirit in Christ and Christians. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1975. The Giving Gift: The Holy Spirit in Person. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1988. Yong, Amos. The Spirit Poured Out on All Flesh: Pentecostalism and the Possibility of Global Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2005.


1. The debate about the Spirit during the last century has frequently focused on issues related to the Pentecostal movement and its connection with evangelicalism. Here I need only raise the specter of one hotly debated experience -speaking in tongues - to remind the reader about the intensity of discussion about the Spirit. As for banality, one need only peruse systematic theology texts of the last century to discover either minimal ''nods'' to the Spirit in the section on the Trinity or an overall conflation of the doctrine of the Spirit into the ''Christian life'' (spirituality). Obviously, there are exceptions, but these are more recent developments and it remains open as to whether or not they will become part of ''mainstream'' evangelical thought.

2. Some writers speak of the Spirit as the '' shy'' member or the '' Cinderella'' of the Trinity. See Veli-Matti Karkkainen, Pneumatology: The Holy Spirit in Ecumenical, International, and Contextual Perspective (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2002), p. 16. Karkkainen does not believe this era of silence with respect to the Spirit continues any longer. While more is being written on the Spirit nowadays, I remain unconvinced that it reaches sufficient depth to account for much.

3. '' The Constantinopolitan Creed,'' in John H. Leith (ed.), Creeds of the Churches: A Reader in Christian Doctrine from the Bible to the Present, 3rd edition (Atlanta: John Knox, 1982), p. 33.

4. George Hendry, The Holy Spirit in Christian Theology, revised edition (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1965), p. 11.

5. The image of adolescence'' comes from Cheryl Bridges Johns, The Adolescence of Pentecostalism: In Search of a Legitimate Sectarian Identity,'' PNEUMA: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 17 (Spring 1995): 3-17, p. 4. See also Terry L. Cross, ''A Proposal to Break the Ice: What Can Pentecostal Theology Offer Evangelical Theology?'' Journal of Pentecostal Theology 10. 2 (2002): 44-73.

6. Intriguing in this regard is Edmund J. Rybarczyk, ''Spiritualities Old and New: Similarities between Eastern Orthodoxy and Classical Pentecostalism,'' PNEUMA: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 24.1 (2002): 7-25.

7. Gordon Fee offers a powerful discussion of this in On Being a Trinitarian Christian,'' in Listening to the Spirit in the Text (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000), pp. 24-32.

8. L. Berkhof, Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1941), pp. 97-98.

9. Athanasius, '' Four Discourses Against the Arians,'' Discourse 3, section 41, in Athanasius: Select Works and Letters, ed. Archibald Robertson, in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, 14 vols., ed. Philip Schaff and Henry Wace (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2004), vol. iv, pp. 415-16.

10. Athanasius, '' Epistles Two-Three,'' The Letters of Saint Athanasius Concerning the Holy Spirit, trans. C. R. B. Shapland (London: Epworth, 1951), p. 170.

12. Most evangelicals would arrive at the same conclusion as Athanasius, but they would probably not argue for theosis in order to get there.

13. I am not wishing to suggest that the Eastern approach is without problems of its own (e.g., a virulent monarchy of the Father), but rather that the filioque has inserted a peculiar problem for the West.

14. Stanley Grenz, Theology for the Community of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000), p. 373.

15. Augustine, de trinitate, 15.27.

16. Gerald Bray, ''The Double Procession of the Holy Spirit in Evangelical Theology Today: Do We Still Need it?,'' Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 41. 3 (September 1998): 415-26, p. 423. Bray suggests there is reason to hold the doctrine of double procession, but mainly to ward off Arian tendencies. He suggests finally that evangelicals may be better off by supporting a concept of autotheos - that is, each person of the Godhead is God in himself.

17. Colin Gunton, ''God the Holy Spirit: Augustine and His Successors,'' in Theology through the Theologians: Selected Essays, 1972-1995 (London: T. & T. Clark, 1996), pp. 105-28, p. 128.

19. Sergius Bulgakov, The Comforter, trans. Boris Jakim (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004), p. 181.

20. Millard Erickson, Christian Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1992), p. 846.

21. Clark Pinnock, Flame of Love: A Theology of the Holy Spirit (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1996), p. 38.

22. Eberhard Jiingel, The Doctrine of the Trinity: God's Being is in Becoming, trans. Horton Harris (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1976), p. 30.

24. Ian A. McFarland, ''The Ecstatic God: The Holy Spirit and the Constitution of the Trinity,'' Theology Today 54. 3 (October 1997): 335-46, p. 344.

26. Pinnock offers some of the most descriptive prose concerning the Spirit and Creation. See also Colin Gunton: ''Wherever the Spirit is, there the true end of creation is anticipated'' (''The Spirit Moved Over the Face of the Waters: The Holy Spirit and the Created Order,'' International Journal of Systematic Theology 4. 2 [July 2002]: 190-204, p. 198).

28. Catherine Mowry LaCugna, God for Us: The Trinity and Christian Life (San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1991), p. 270. LaCugna notes that perichoresis was used as a defense against both tritheism and subordinationism. The root ideas behind perichoresis are to make room for another (chorein) and to be among or round about (peri). One can see the root of the English word ''choreography'' -hence, the dance of God.

29. Molly Truman Marshall, ''Participating in the Life of God: A Trinitarian Pneumatology,'' Perspectives in Religious Studies 30. 2 (Summer 2003): ^^ p. i46.

31. Marshall, ''Participating in the Life of God,'' p. 150.

32. Daniel Migliore, ''The Missionary God and the Missionary Church,'' The Princeton Seminary Bulletin 19.1, ns (1998): 14-25, p. 18.

33. Marshall, ''Participating in the Life of God,'' p. 147.

34. I am not supporting an Ebionite style of Spirit Christology where Jesus is merely human and somehow the Spirit anoints him to do wondrous things, or even more recent attempts at Spirit Christology that deny the divinity of the persons of the Trinity altogether.

35. Ralph Del Colle, ''Spirit-Christology: Dogmatic Foundations for Pentecostal-Charismatic Spirituality,'' Journal of Pentecostal Theology 3 (1993): 91-112, p. 98. Also, see his Christ and the Spirit: Spirit-Christology in Trinitarian Perspective (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).

36. Clark Pinnock urges us to enrich this doctrine with the Eastern model of theosis in Flame of Love, pp. 149-50. Also see Frank Macchia, '' Justification and the Spirit: A Pentecostal Reflection on the Doctrine by Which the Church Stands or Falls,'' PNEUMA: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 22.1 (Spring 2000): 3-21; Veli-Matti Karkkainen, '' The Holy Spirit and Justification: The Ecumenical Significance of Luther's Doctrine of Salvation,'' PNEUMA: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 24.1 (Spring 2002): 26-39; D. Lyle Dabney, ''' Justified by the Spirit': Soteriological Reflections on the Resurrection,'' International Journal of Systematic Theology 3. 1 (March 2001): 46-68.

37. This is basically Dabney's question in Justified by the Spirit','' pp. 47-48.

40. Donald Bloesch, The Holy Spirit: Works and Gifts, Christian Foundations (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2000), p. 223.

41. Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics, trans. and ed. G. W. Bromiley and T. F. Torrance (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1975), 1/1: 452-53.

42. Without supporting some kind of pneumatic abstraction of Christianity by directing our thoughts away from the Son, one can ask penetrating questions of the Spirit of truth, as my friend Amos Yong does in approaching religious pluralism from a pneumatic and phenomenological perspective. See his Beyond the Impasse: Toward a Pneumatological Theology ofReligions (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2003), and The Spirit Poured Out on All Flesh: Pentecostalism and the Possibility of Global Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2005).

43. The Greek word allon may have this force with it as opposed to heteros, '' another of a different kind.''

44. For this reason '' subordination'' language with respect to the Spirit seems inappropriate, yet Bruce Ware even posits that in the age to come the Spirit will take the backseat to the Son and the Father'' (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit: Relationships, Roles, and Relevance [Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2005], p. 125). However, Trinitarian pneumatology would find no one member of the Trinity the undue focus of attention, not allowing hierarchy but instead lively equality. This, too, would help the church in its understanding of humans' equal worth to God (and each other) in thought and practice. Peter Hodgson reminds us that ''Subordination of the Spirit, marginalization of women, and exploitation of nature have gone hand in hand in the history of the church,'' as quoted in Marshall,'' Participating in the Life of God,'' p. 142, fn. 21, from his book, Winds of the Spirit: A Constructive Christian Theology (London: SCM, 1994), p. 276. This may be an overstatement, but it should jar our senses.

45. J├╝rgen Moltmann, The Trinity and the Kingdom: The Doctrine of God (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1981), p. 176.

46. David Willis, Clues to the Nicene Faith: A Brief Outline of the Faith (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2005), p. 105.

47. Serene Jones, Feminist Theory and Christian Theology: Cartographies of Grace, Guides to Theological Inquiry (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2000), p. 107.

50. See Bruce Hindmarsh, "Is Evangelical Ecclesiology an Oxymoron? A Historical Perspective,'' in John Stackhouse, Jr. (ed.), Evangelical Ecclesiology: Reality or Illusion? (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2003), pp. 15-37.

51. The details of Pauline thought on the Spirit are best seen through Gordon Fee, God's Empowering Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Letters of Paul (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1994).

52. Nicholas Wolterstorff, Until Justice and Peace Embrace: The Kuyper Lectures for 1981 Delivered at the Free University of Amsterdam (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1983), p. 69.

53. Cornelius Plantinga, Jr., Engaging God's World: A Christian Vision of Faith, Learning, and Living (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2002), p. 15.

54. See Ron Sider, Good News and Good Works: A Theology for the Whole Gospel (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1993); also The Scandal of the Evangelical Conscience: Why Are Christians Living Just Like the Rest of the World? (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2005).

55. Michael Welker, God the Spirit, trans. John Hoffmeyer (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 1994), p. 227. Wolfhart Pannenberg also uses this force field analogy with similar effect. See Pannenberg, Systematic Theology, 3 vols., trans. Geoffrey Bromiley (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994), vol. ii, pp. 80-84; 99; 110.

56. Although I am an evangelical-Pentecostal, I have purposefully refrained from returning to debates about speaking in tongues and the gifts of the Spirit. Rather than center on cessationism or non-cessationism, I chose to write about issues that I find more important for the Reign of God in the long run. Hence, comments regarding the gifts of the Spirit come at the end in the section that discusses the community of faith and its responsibility to the world. The Spirit's gifts are meant as God's encouragement for us, not as divisive marks that distinguish us from each other.

57. This is my translation.

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