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Other groups trace their origin to the charismatic movement, which grew in parallel with the Pentecostal and charismatic movements within Protestantism. Counting Catholics and Protestants together, the numbers are impressive, especially when we compare them with the Muslim population that has received so much media attention in recent years: roughly, Europe's evangelicals, charismatics, and pentecostals outnumber Muslims by almost two to one, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future (see Table 3.2).

Charismatics became a potent force within the Catholic Church during the late 1960s, and in 1975 they received the powerful backing of Pope Paul VI. In the 1970s, the movement developed a significant

Table 3.2 Some Religious Minorities In Europe (in millions)

1900

1970

2000

2025

Muslims

9 (2.3%)

18 (2.7%)

32 (4.3%)

36 (5.1%)

Evangelicals, Charismatics

and Pentecostals

32 (8%)

30 (4.6%)

59 (8.2%)

69 (9.8%)

These groups can belong to any denomination. The figures for charismatics, for instance, include Roman Catholic and Anglican charismatics, and most British "evangelicals" are members of the Church of England. Please also note that the authors include Russia as part of Europe, which accounts for the high number of Muslims given here.

Source: David B. Barrett, George T. Kurian, and Todd M. Johnson, World Christian Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 12-15.

These groups can belong to any denomination. The figures for charismatics, for instance, include Roman Catholic and Anglican charismatics, and most British "evangelicals" are members of the Church of England. Please also note that the authors include Russia as part of Europe, which accounts for the high number of Muslims given here.

Source: David B. Barrett, George T. Kurian, and Todd M. Johnson, World Christian Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 12-15.

following in Italy, where the Rinnovamento nello Spirito (RnS) became an ecclesial movement in its own right. By 2000, the RnS claimed 250,000 followers organized in 1,300 communities and groupings, with at least some presence in every Italian diocese.37

The movement also boomed in France. Initially led by Pierre Goursat and Martine Catta, a French network of charismatic prayer groups spread rapidly, as groups grew and then split to form new cells. Martine Catta reported that "we had the feeling that we were reviving Pentecost." Soon, the network institutionalized in the form of the Emmanuel Community, which was formally recognized by the church in 1992: today, it has some 6,000 members, including 130 priests. Like other Catholic charismatics, they distinguish themselves from their Protestant counterparts by their profound veneration for the Virgin Mary and their use of pilgrimage. Since 1975, the community has based itself at Paray-le-Monial, which in the seventeenth century became famous as the site of the first reported vision of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and which continues today as a pilgrimage site: it still attracts 300,000 visitors annually. In addition to that total, some 20,000 attend the summer sessions and retreats organized by the Emmanuel Community for priests, families, and young people. Suggesting the wealth of spiritual sites that survive in contemporary Europe, Paray-le-Monial is close to both Taize and the ancient monastery of Cluny.38

Catholic charismatics flourish in other countries, though in more decentralized form. England is home to several dozen charismatic communities and settlements, as well as summer camps and conferences, and regional Days of Renewal. In 1985, English layman Myles Dempsey was visiting the French shrine of Ars when he had a vision that included the words "Walsingham" and "New Dawn." Largely through his efforts, Walsingham, a great medieval Marian shrine, became the center of the annual New Dawn summer conference, which seeks to present "the beauty of the church . . . in all its splendor, the church with all its lights on and all its aspects celebrated—the charismatic, the liturgical, the Marian, the Eucharistic, the Sacramental, the mystical."39

Though little known outside their immediate region, other Catholic communities have produced revival movements, often operating within the charismatic framework. In the Czech Republic, which normally represents a malarial swamp for mainstream spirituality of any kind, Fr. Vladimir Mikulica led an influential charismatic revival that also drew on Orthodox and mystical currents. In neighboring Slovakia, Silvo Krcméry was a Catholic physician who was long persecuted by communist authorities but who subsequently helped turn St. Martin's parish, Bratislava, into something like a Catholic megachurch. In the early 1990s, members visited Taizé and Paray-le-Monial, "which is full of the Holy Spirit," and returned to launch a revival. Members practice street evangelization, and the parish's media operation reaches millions.40

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