The above table offers an overview of the occurrences of time and eternity terminologies.
Everyday and Seasonal Terminologies In the hymnals that were analyzed, the most frequently used terms for the remaining time indications are generally the same. They are the concepts of Tag/dag/day, Nacht/natt/night, Morgen/morgon/morning, Abend/ afton, kvall/evening, Jahr ar/year, heute/i dag /today, Stunde/stund, timme/ hour?4 As one might expect, everyday terminology is found quite often in hymns dealing with the New Year and with times of day. Christmas and Easter hymns also exhibit a high frequency of everyday terminology. In all of the books, day is by far the word used most often, and night is the second most frequently used expression. Both terms are used primarily in a qualitative manner, whereby day has an entirely positive meaning, while night quite often symbolizes everything that is negative. Throughout the centuries, one encounters many variations of white day and black night8 With few exceptions,86 night is the place that is considered to be remote from God, whereas the light of day signals closeness to salvation.
In all of the hymnals, morning is also used more frequently than evening. With the exception of Pspo, evening is the least used term of all those listed here. The most striking numerical difference with respect to the use of the terms morning and evening is found in the Australian books; in these hymnals, morning occurs six or nine times more frequently than its antithesis. Except for the two Swedish books, today appears more often than year. On the other hand, in Sv ps and Pspo, hour is clearly over-represented in comparison to the other books.
The relatively frequent use of seasonal terminology87 in the Swedish books is striking. The EG contains twenty-three hymns dealing with the topic of "nature and the seasons." Distributed over five of these hymns, the seasons are specified by name only eight times.88 Seasonal terminology is even rarer in the other songs of the EG and in the GL. The terms winter, spring, and summer are mentioned a few times in the AHB.89 The seasons appear approximately ten times more frequently in the Sv ps, with vir (spring) and sommar (summer) being used more than three times as often as vinter (winter) and höst (autumn). Both in this book and in Pspo, höst (autumn) is the season that is mentioned least.90 Pspo exhibits the greatest concentration of seasonal terminology91 of all of the hymnals; however, in this hymnal, vinter (winter) is the most frequently occurring term. It is mentioned as much as summer and spring combined.
In addition to the words already mentioned, everyday terminology is also illustrated by the following terms that appear less frequently: täglich (daily), gestern (yesterday), morgen (tomorrow, in the morning), Mittag (midday), Sekunde (second), Minute (minute), Woche (week), Jahrhundert (century), and Jahrtausend (millennium).
Everyday and seasonal terminologies are often combined with time terminology or eternity terminology.92 Overall, those passages that contain everyday and seasonal terminologies in either pure or combined form are predominant in all of the books—except for the GL, in which eternity terminology, which makes up approximately half of all time indications, constitutes the largest portion. Pspo contains the largest proportion (90 percent) of pure and combined everyday terminology and seasonal terminology.
The following diagram illustrates the relation of time terminology to eternity terminology, as well as to everyday and seasonal terminologies, in the hymnals that were examined:
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