Complete English Grammar Rules

The Farlex Grammar Book

The grammar book for the 21st century has arrived, from the language experts at Farlex International and, the trusted reference destination with 1 billion annual visits. The Farlex Grammar Book is a comprehensive guide consisting of three volumes: Volume I-English Grammar, Volume II-English Punctuation, Volume III-English Spelling, and Pronunciation.Inside, you'll find clear, easy-to-understand explanations of everything you need to master proper grammar, including complete English grammar rules, examples, and exceptionsplus a grammar quiz at the end of every topic to test what you've learned.Farlex brings you the most comprehensive grammar guide yet: all the rules of English grammar, explained in simple, easy-to-understand terms. Over 500 pages of proper grammar instruction2x more than the leading grammar book! Whether you're an expert or a beginner, there's always something new to learn when it comes to the always-evolving English language. Only Complete English Grammar Rules gives you common grammar mistakes, thousands of real-world examples. With Complete English Grammar Rules, you'll be able to: Quickly master basic English grammar and tackle more advanced topics, Properly use every type of noun, verb, and even the most obscure grammar elements, Master verb tenses, including irregular verbs and exceptions, Avoid embarrassing grammar errors. More here...

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Nietzsche Derrida grammar and

In his Twilight of the Idols, Nietzsche tells us of his 'fear that we are not getting rid of God because we still believe in grammar',5 thereby expressing, perhaps seminally for much French interpretation of Nietzsche, its logophobia, its fear of language. For all his supreme wordiness, Nietzsche fears language - it torments him with theological paradox. Language, constructed internally from the formal constituents of grammar, divides. Not that language fails merely as expression - because it divides into the artificial units of grammar what were, as if in some way prior to language, the natural and given unities of thought and experience -for language is there from the beginning as structure within thought and experience, which possess in consequence no prior unities for language then to betray.6 Language taints in a manner which is original and originating, and the unities of experience which it fragments have no preexistent 'presence', and are no more than those which language...

The first belief monotheism

Believing in or calling on any deity other than God is termed shirk (partnership), which is the only unforgivable sin (4 116), unless one repents (25 68-70). It is God that should be worshipped ''there is no god but God'' (47 19). This mode of expression is the most categorical possible in Arabic grammar. All gods are denied, with the exception of God Himself.

Proof and foundationalism

26 And Thomas does say that in the context of a demonstration of God's existence you would at least need to know something about what you are attempting to prove the existence of. But even then Thomas explicitly denies that we can know in advance of proof what God is, for it is what we show the existence of which shows what God is. What we need by way of equipment for the purposes of proof is knowledge of the divine effects and some knowledge of the grammar of the noun 'God' 'ad probandum aliquid esse, necesse est pro medio quidsignificetnomen, non autem quod quid est quia quaestio quid est, sequitur ad quaestionem an est. Nomina autem Deum imponitur ab effectibus . . . unde, demonstrando Deum esse per effectum, accipere possumus pro medio quid significet hoc nomen Deus.' ST 1a q2 a3 ad1.

Secondary and university education

Turning to the secondary schools and the teaching of Latin, the similarities between Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican institutions appear to significantly outweigh the differences. In 1650, all of these institutions shared a similar humanist heritage from the Schulordnungen or Kirchenordnungen of Philipp MelanchthontoJean Sturm's model gymnasium in Strasbourg, to John Calvin's schools in Geneva and Zwingli's in Zurich - all of which, in turn, drew on the methods established by the Brothers of the Common Life at the end of the fifteenth century. In addition, the Jesuits' Ratio Studiorum (1599) owed much to the modus parisiensis developed within the University of Paris at the beginning of the sixteenth century. On both sides of the confessional boundary one finds the same organization of studies by successive classes, lessons (praelectiones), and exercises (questions, debates, prose imitations) the same use of classical antiquity, in both its rhetoric and its ideals of...

The developed kalam tradition

A few initial points need to be made about the nature of Islamic theology in its later stages before a discussion of some of its main themes and thinkers can be attempted. First, there often exists no clear distinction between Islamic theology, in the sense of kalam, and the other Islamic and not so Islamic sciences, such as grammar, jurisprudence (fiqh), philosophy (falsafa hikma), Sufism, and the even more specific activities of learning how to operate with the Traditions of the Prophet, and how to assess and rank the chains of narrators which differentiate their levels of reliability. Islamic theologians did not usually strictly separate what they did from all these other activities, and so it is not easy to provide a neat account of precisely what is theological and what is not.1

Medieval Justifications For The Use Of Philosophy

Jewish and Muslim authors fought parallel battles concerning the use of philosophy. Moses Maimonides, for example, in his Treatise on Logic, refereed the debate between the superiority of logic over grammar, portraying logic as a universal grammar, and distinguishing between generally accepted religious opinions and traditions and universally and necessarily valid ones. His Guide of the Perplexed, dealing with the traditional Jewish teachings, became one of medieval Judaism's most studied and controversial works. In his treatment of the problem of the relation between faith and reason, Maimonides was influenced strongly by the Islamic philosopher Alfarabi, who provided a contrasting treatment of philosophical logic and the grammar of ordinary language. In effect, the extended result of this debate for Alfarabi was that religion is essentially the popular expression of philosophy communicated to the nonphilosophical believers by prophets. Alfarabi's position was influential among...

What are thingsingeneral

The problem of universals, then, was for practical purposes inseparable in the twelfth century from the technical work on the operation of logic and language which was taking Aristotle's logic much further, and which created a speculative grammar over and above the groundwork laid by Priscian and Donatus. The logica moderna constituted a substantial advance in the field, to a degree not matched perhaps by any other branch of mediaeval philosophy. It produced a body of textbooks (the Logica Moderna) which were not mere commentary on Aristotle but which broke new ground.

The Beginning And Development Of Medieval Arabian And Jewish Philosophy And Theology

The Jewish philosophical and theological world was closely linked to the Arabian intellectual tradition. The writings of these Jewish authors were originally in Arabic, though many were later translated into Hebrew (and Latin). These writings also manifested the dialectical style found in the works of Islamic kalam. Saadiah Gaon, the 10th-century Egyptian expert in Jewish law, Hebrew grammar, and the translator into Arabic and commentator on many biblical books, introduced, as was already indicated, dialectical theology into the medieval Jewish community. The challenges his community faced were both internal and external. From within there was a great deal of perplexity due to the Karaites, Jews who rejected

The Idea Of Theology And The Conflict Of Interests

This development from a 'Boethian' to a mediaeval Christian notion of the scope of theologia had implications for the view that philosophy is the guide of life. Moral theology filled that need for Christians. There remained, nevertheless, the awkwardness of the common element of speculativa. In Boethian handling of the topics of theologia, as in the treatment of the same subjects (in their different ways) by classical philosophers, it was uncontroversial that all the aids to formal reasoning which grammar, logic and rhetoric could provide should be employed. Such aids were not less helpful in the Middle Ages. In fact they were more helpful, because there were major technical developments in these areas. But for some mediaeval scholars there arose the question whether reason could properly be used in this way in discussing matters of faith. On the whole, it was not an urgent problem in the earlier Middle Ages. The cognate question, the one which troubled Jerome, was more pressing then,...

The Birth Of Medieval Christian Theology

The early medieval Christian theological world, in discussions over problems related to the Trinity, divine omnipotence, predestination, and the Eucharist, was characterized by efforts to retrieve the Patristic teachings. The difficulties and contentions that arose often grew out of grammatical concerns and logical consistencies, demanding precisions relating to the principal liberal arts of grammar and dialectic. A significant change came with St. Anselm in the 11th century and Peter Abelard in the 12th century. Anselm searched for a deeper understanding of the mysteries of the faith, such as the Trinity and the redemptive Incarnation, often going beyond the issues of grammar and dialectic. He treaded ground that was new in his era, though he believed it was well justified in the Patristic tradition. This appeal to a Patristic tradition is clear from the preface to his Monologion

Archaeology and Genesis What Does the Record Show

Jacob Rachel Leah Leave Flee Laban

In 1922 Leonard Woolley thoroughly excavated the city of Ur in southern Iraq and found it had been a thriving metropolis around 2000 B.C., precisely the time of Abraham. Based on his findings, Woolley even drew a map of the city that showed its orderly boulevards and made up blueprints of spacious dwellings with indoor baths. Classrooms were excavated that yielded schoolchildren's tablets with lessons on grammar and arithmetic still visible. In addition, variations on the name Abraham were found that

Biblical Exegesis And Trinitarian Theology

How does St Thomas bring speculative reflection into effect in his reading of the Fourth Gospel His way of reading the Bible uses the three levels of literal exposition described by Hugh of St Victor the littera in the strict sense (textual analysis with reference to grammar and linguistics, an overview of the words' meaning in their immediate context), the sensus (the analysis of the signification of each member), and the sententia (a genuine understanding of the text, which draws out its theological and philosophical meaning).5 This sententia, that is, the development of the theological themes constituting the teaching in the finished exposition, exhibits two formal principles which are at work in the John Commentary. It engages either in commentary following upon the biblical pericope (this is what it does most often), or in questions, objections or digressions raised by the reading of the text (this occurs more rarely).6 In every case, speculative theology is not superimposed on...

Theology And Philosophical Method

This third area in which divine illumination might be deemed to play a part was not characteristically discussed in the Middle Ages in connection with a theory of language and signs which Augustine set out in the De Doctrina Christiana and which it was necessary to harmonise with the accounts given by Aristotle in the De Interpretatione and by the Roman grammarians. Augustine begins from the natural signs which are to be found in the world (smoke which tells us that there is a fire), and signs which are accepted by convention, such as gestures which convey an attitude or a response. Words are conventional signs too, which are necessary like gestures because as sinful beings we cannot see clearly into one another's minds. Augustine argues in the De Magistro (VIII.21) that this system of signs depends on God's gift of the ideas to which they refer God puts the ideas into our heads and illuminates them for us so that we can see them we learn to associate with them certain signs, so that...

The Transmission Of Knowledge

From the emergence in the eighth century of the traditional ''Islamic sciences'', which include grammar (nahw), exegesis (tafsi), dialectic theology (kalam), study of hadith, and jurisprudence (fiqh), the establishment and maintenance of a connection to the event of revelation became the central preoccupation of those who dedicated themselves to learning. If revelation represented a special infusion of knowledge into the world, this knowledge had to form the basis of human scholarly endeavours, and therefore had to be transmitted accurately from generation to generation.

Islamic law and classical theology

Kevin Reinhart argues that Islamic intellectual history must be seen as a holistic development. Law did not develop in isolation but was tightly integrated from the beginning with the emergence of kalaam, grammar, and qur'anic commentary, and he insists that it is ''impossible to grasp the origins, significance, and implications'' of the act classifications of Hanafa positive law outside the context of Islam's earliest theological debates.30 Similarly, Fazlur Rahman contends that Shafi'a's dialectic regarding hadith was oriented, not at legal scholars per se, but at early Mu'tazilites.31

Trinity And Divine Simplicity

Waters of speculative grammar than he was technically equipped to swim in.15 In his second, published letter On the Incarnation of the Word, he tackled first the contention that the three Persons must be three things, which would destroy the simplicity of God and make him plural. Anselm presses Roscelin to explain what he means by 'things'. No Christian wants to say that Father and Son are one thing in their Fatherhood and Sonship. But Christians believe that in what is common to them, their Godhead, they are one thing. Again Anselm resorts to the notion of predication, and says that God is unique in that 'Father' and 'Son' are predicated of one Being if a man is called 'Father', that is in relation to a second man who is his son. So we could certainly say that Father and Son are two things, if that is what we mean by 'thing'. But it is not what Roscelin means. In making the comparison with three angels or three souls, he is slipping from a relational predication (proper uniquely to...

Mittwoch S Islamic Liturgy And Cult

Political and social contact existed for centuries between Jews and Arabs,* and one of the most creative periods of Jewish history arose and passed with the Islamic civilization. All branches of Jewish life were affected, and the Muslims acted as the teachers of the Jews in the fields of philosophy, poetry, grammar, lexicography, medicine and science. Of these nothing need be said here because they did not affect Judaism in its fundamental concepts. It is true that new branches grew on the tree and results, remarkable within Judaism and without, were achieved, e.g. by Yehudah Hallevi and Moses Maimonides, to mention only two outstanding characters. But the stem of Halakhah was

Monastery Records And Libraries

A wealth of literature was produced from the beginning of the fifth to the 17th century in Europe, and many of the most admired works were written by Catholic authors. Although some of these works, such as the records of monasteries compiled by Christian monks during the Middle Ages, were merely histories of monastic foundations, others, such as the Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation written by a British monk called the Venerable Bede (673-735), were masterpieces. Bede wrote many works on science, grammar, history, and theology.

Theology And Philosophy In The Islamic West

His studies in Cordova had of course included jurisprudence, but he was dissatisfied with the Malikite school dominant in al-Andalus and, after following the Shafi'ites for a time, eventually found his spiritual home in the Zahirite school. This is a minor school which has died out. The name is derived from its principle that the statements of the Qur'an and the Hadith are to be taken in their literal or outward sense (zahii) and not in an inward or esoteric sense (batin). While previous Zahirites had applied the principle only to legal matters, and had held various views in theology, Ibn-Hazm attempted to apply it also in points of dogma, and so to bring law and theology together in a single intellectual structure. Indeed his coherent methodology also included grammar, as was shown by Roger Arnaldez' careful and detailed study.

By The Primacy Of

Two applications of Frei's methodological advice are instructive. The interdisciplinary proposal developed by Deborah van Deusen Hunsinger is perhaps the most explicit account to date of the postliberal grammar embedded in Frei's typology. Theology and psychology, she proposes, are not properly related by granting priority to psychology, or by co-equal mutual correlation, or by integration. Integration is not a theoretical desidera turn, but a skill to be developed by the ecclesial practitioner (in the context of pastoral counseling). The grammar governing the relevant interdisciplinary relations is provided by the Chalcedonian pattern. Theology and psychology are related in practice by a pattern of inseparable unity ( without separation or division ), irreducible distinction ( without confusion or change ),34 and asymmetrical ordering (the logical precedence of theology over psychology). It is especially van Deusen Hunsinger's asymmetrical ordering principle that gives postliberal...

The Idea Of Philosophy

The gathering, when he enters it, is discussing, in twos and threes, not one but several questions. Some are trying to reconcile Aristotle and Porphyry on genera and species. Some are trying to determine whether grammar is a branch of logic. The debate which catches Gilbert's interest is between 'two philosophers of different sects' (diversae sectae), a Christian and a pagan (gentilis). The issue between them is the rational grounds for Christian faith, and the credit which should be given to the authority of revelation. The 'philosophical society' recedes into the background as the discussion works its way through the content of the Christian faith. We hear no more of the litterati homines, and in any case Gilbert makes it plain as he introduces them that they were 'as it seemed to me, students of the discipline of logic' only in the sketchiest sense does he envisage them as like the philosophers of old. A first conclusion to be drawn from all this is that the thirteenth-century...

Arab Christianity in the Classical Islamic World

Of course, this development was a practical necessity as Christians started to be confronted with questions about their faith from the qur'anic array of teachings which Muslims had available. But besides the necessities of apologetic, it is possible that Christians who were freed from the pressures of Byzantine conformity and its overriding influence developed their own native forms of thinking in a new language and intellectual grammar which they shared with Muslim counterparts. As they thought out the implications of their faith in a new context, they produced theologies that at the same time looked back to patristic antecedents and looked around to the intellectual tools and formulations that were immediately available.

Neo Ijtihad and Return to the Salaf

Of Arabic language, Arabic grammar and the foundations of Islamic jurisprudence (usul al-fiqh)276 In Ibn Rushd's view, mere memorisation of the plentiful minutiae of jurisprudence does not make the best jurisprudent (faqih). The latter needs to be equipped with a proper set of intellectual tools - and clearly, for Ibn Rushd, that includes the capacity for discrimination and, thus, ijtihad. Otherwise, one is like a cobbler with many shoes but without the ability to make such shoes 277 'It is obvious that the person who has a large number of shoes will (some day) be visited by one whose feet the shoes do not fit. He will then go back to the cobbler who will make shoes that are suitable for his feet.'278

The Critique of Natural Theology

Newman reasserted this position in the Grammar of Assent of 1870,where in a remarkably dark passage describing the experience of a person looking for the presence of the Creator in the creation, he wrote, What strikes the mind so forcibly and so painfully is, His absence (if I may so speak) from His own world. It is a silence that speaks. It is as if others had got possession of His work. 48 Newman's emotional and theological outlook led him to a view of the world as restless, formless, and tumultuous as that of any radically materialistic evolutionist and much less purposeful than that of a Herbert Spencer. Many years later, in the Grammar of Assent, Newman deplored the religion of so-called civilization because civilization itself is not a development of man's whole nature, but mainly of the intellect, recognizing indeed the moral sense, but ignoring the conscience, and consequently the religion in which it issues has no sympathy either with the hopes and fears of the awakened soul,...

Four Stages Of Theological Education

Gregory's work, Book of Pastoral Rule, was written in AD 591. It is a discussion on the duties of the bishop's office. Douglas, New Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 289. Notre Dame was one of the earliest cathedral schools. The University of Paris grew out of a cathedral school. Bowen, History of Western Education 2 111. After 1100, the cathedral schools expanded, being broken up into grammar schools for boys and a higher school for advanced learning. The word university comes from, the medieval Latin universitas, which was the term used for the medieval craft guilds (Bowen, History of Western Education 2 109).

Explanation And Scriptural Basis A The Meaning of Inerrancy

rules of grammatical expression (such as the use of a plural verb where grammatical rules would require a singular verb, or the use of a feminine adjective where a masculine one would be expected, or different spelling for a word than the one commonly used, etc.). These stylistically or grammatically irregular statements (which are especially found in the book of Revelation) should not trouble us, for they do not affect the truthfulness of the statements under consideration a statement can be ungrammatical but still be entirely true. For example, an uneducated backwoodsman in some rural area may be the most trusted man in the county even though his grammar is poor, because he has earned a reputation for never telling a lie. Similarly, there are a few statements in Scripture (in the original languages) that are ungrammatical (according to current standards of proper grammar at that time) but still inerrant because they are completely true. The issue is truthfulness in speech.

Difference and hierarchy the pseudoDenys

Hierarchy is ineradicable from the earliest classical formulations of negative theology they are born twins in their first incarnations. And if not the first, then certainly the most influential of those incarnations in Western Christian thought must be that found in the pseudo-Denys' Mystical Theology. For the pseudo-Denys a hierarchy is a differentiated structure of differences. Thus, in the fourth and fifth chapters of that work he describes a hierarchy of differentiated denials - denials, that is, of all the names of God. Those names, to use a later, medieval, metaphor, form a ladder, ascending from the lowest 'perceptual' names - 'God is a rock, is immense, is light, is darkness ' - derived as metaphors from material objects - to the very highest, 'proper' or 'conceptual' names of God 'God is wise and wisdom, good and goodness, beautiful and beauty, exists and existence'. All these names the pseudo-Denys negates one by one as he progresses up the scale of language until at the...

Imagination and the adventure of faith

Faith is the act of the whole person and has as its object a personal God. Faith cannot be less than personal and personalist categories are required to interpret it. Provided that we remember this, we may speak of the role of various faculties in conducing to faith reason, conscience and imagination. It is the crucial function of the imagination in the venture of faith that I propose to explore in this chapter. Newman wrote in his Anglican days ('The Tamworth Reading Room', 1841) and quoted himself half a lifetime later in the Grammar of Assent 'The heart is commonly reached, not through the reason, but through the imagination. Persons influence us, voices melt us, looks subdue us, deeds inflame us' (Newman, 1903, pp.92f.).

Reply to Argument III

Ryle) of professing bafflement over an opponent's position Rundle maintains that he has no idea of theistic claims. I can get no grip on the idea of an agent doing something where the doing, the bringing about, is not an episode in time . . . (Rundle 2004, p. 77). One may well agree that he, Rundle, does, indeed, not understand the metaphysical claims he writes about, and yet challenge Rundle's charge that others also fail in this respect. Certainly, the line (presumably taken from Wittgenstein) that to talk of God's seeing requires (grammatically) that God have (literal) eyes seems open to question. I am tempted to ask the question, Whose grammar Anselm of Canterbury and Ralph Cudworth (to pick two remote and otherwise quite different figures) held that God's cognition of the world and all its aspects did not require bodily organs. Perhaps they are mistaken, but it is hard to believe that they were merely making a mistake in Latin or English grammar. This is especially...

Sumer and the Beginnings of History

For the land was the god's, without whose procreative power all life would cease. The king was his bailiff, a less, temporarily earthbound god whose function was also to ensure the productivity of the community. The administrative centre of each district was the god's house, the temple, with its priestly officials whose control over the people was absolute. The temple was the seat of justice, land administration, scientific learning, and theological speculation, as well as the theatre of religious ritual. It was the community's university and primary school, to which small boys would drag their unwilling steps each day to set the pattern of grammar school curricula for more than five millennia. It was in such temple colleges that their tutors built, over the next two thousand years, some of the richest and most extensive libraries of the ancient world.

The Problem Of Predication

Some may wonder whether we can dispense with some of these difficulties by adopting a theory of univocity. Following Duns Scotus (d. 1308), it may be suggested that we should draw the boundary between univocal and analogical uses of terms by considering the possibility of various comparisons (Sherry 1976 439-40). For instance, the comparison 'Your complexion is healthier than I am' sounds logically odd, suggesting that 'healthy' does not have the same sense when used of complexions and human beings. But the comparison 'God is wiser than you are' does not sound so obviously amiss (although Wittgensteinians may detect deep differences of 'logical grammar' here). So there are reasons for thinking that in some central cases we may talk of God and of creatures univocally. Indeed, it may be argued (as Scotus himself suggests) that Aquinas's own doctrine is implicitly univocalist. For instance, Aquinas maintains (1964 la 13.3 57-9) that the res significata of terms like goodness is the same...

Showing The Fly The Way Out Of The Bottle

Wittgenstein thought that Descartes's bifurcation of subject and object was particularly baneful philosophical confusion The idea of thinking as a process in the head, in a completely enclosed space, makes thinking something occult. 17 One of the most dangerous ideas for a philosopher is, oddly enough, that we think with our heads or in our heads. 18 In order to counter such enchantments, he developed a therapeutic method of philosophy that attended to the grammar of ordinary language. In other words, Wittgenstein concerned himself with the patterns of ordinary language use within a given social matrix. This strategy undermines the very way the skeptic sets up the knowledge problem as one of ascertaining the correspondence between an individual's concepts and brute reality out there. 17 Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Grammar, ed. Rush Rhees, trans. Anthony Kenny Attending to the grammar of concepts - that is, to the linguistic practice of ordinary speakers (and here the plurality...

Did Roger Bacon Read Maimonides

The reader of the modern editions of Roger Bacon's works comes up against a major problem there are no explicit references to The Guide in the indices of the modern editions of Bacon's works. This is, indeed, surprising, in that by the 1260's it was quite common for major philosophers and theologians to make explicit reference to this work, especially in regard to theories on the knowledge and attributes of God (Dobbs-Weinstein, 1995 Burrell, 1988, 1986, 1984 Dienstag, 1975 Buijs, 1988). In fact, Roger Bacon provides us with a short account of this philosophical problem, but Maimonides's great work is not explicitly cited (Bacon, Moralis philosophiae, part I, Massa). Thus, a preliminary review of Bacon's texts come up with a negative result. It would appear in fact that Roger Bacon did not know and did not use the text of The Guide. This is indeed a most unusual situation for a Scholastic Philosopher in the second half of the 13th century. And it is especially so for Roger Bacon. For...

From Tillich to today

The disaffections expressed by Yoder are given a more positive formulation by George Lindbeck in his The Nature of Doctrine. For Lindbeck, religions are kinds of cultures, and they provide a medium that shapes the entirety of life and thought. . . . Like a culture or language, it is a communal phenomenon that shapes the subjectivities of individuals rather than being primarily a manifestation of those subjectivities (Lindbeck 1984 33). Lindbeck makes a special effort to avoid the original interiority (and necessary individualism) of earlier accounts, arguing instead that a religion is above all an external word . . . that molds and shapes the self and its world, rather than an expression or thematization of a preexisting self (1984 34). Theology, in this vision, provides a conceptual articulation of this language, its grammar. (This is not a simply descriptive enterprise, but can actually be creative, as the scope of intratextuality continually changes to include new concerns and...

The subTle Ties of allusion

The expression from the standpoint of grammar may nonetheless coincide with it .51 We see this when a person says, ''This hike is longer than I remember'', and means primarily but not exclusively, ''I need a rest.'' He communicates something in addition to, although clearly related to, the meaning the sentence conveys.

Difference and the difference

Whatever view one takes of Scotus' arguments that the possibility of a natural theology depends on the most general terms used of God and creatures being univocally predicable, at the very least they can be said to address a genuine problem about theological language in general. What is the difference between God and creatures How are we to talk about that difference Does such talk have a 'grammar' And however we do talk about that difference - the 'gap', as it were, between God and creatures -is that gap so to be understood that any inference purporting to 'cross' it must, perforce, be invalid

The ulama AND discourses Of Orthodoxy

This rationalist methodology was appealing to scholars in other fields, such as grammar and law, who incorporated elements of the approach and techniques of the mutakallimun into their works. However, within kalam it created a centrifugal effect, which led to the emergence of countless schools and sub-groups of theologians. In contrast to the established schools of legal thought, the early theological schools did not possess an ethos of mutual toleration comparable to the jurists' principle that the considered judgement of a competent scholar was always valid,5 nor could they call upon a shared corpus of material like the traditionists. The uncompromising rationalist stance of the theologians further augmented the divisiveness of their approach. The assumption that the acquisition of rational proof for the existence of God and the truthfulness of the Prophet were prerequisites of genuine adherence to the Qur'an led many early mutakallimun to dismiss any faith not thus grounded as...

Dramatic Change In Scholarship

In 1890 a major revision of the KJV was being considered. By this time, spelling and grammar had changed and many of the Old English words used in the KJV were considered obscure in meaning. Some critics believed that increased scholarship and the recent availability of Vaticanus and Sinaiticus necessitated a revision. Although there was much fear and distrust of revision in the public mind, it was

Evidence of Classical Sources51

52 This may be contrasted with the personality of Krishna, references to whom are abundant in numerous unconnected Hindu and Buddhist works including purely secular works like those on grammar and linguistics. Even Greek chronicles of the 4th century BC know of him. This shows that Krishna was recognized as a historical figure of importance by his contemporaries and successors. This however is not the case with Jesus. Writing a history of Jesus based on the Gospels is like writing a history of Krishna based on the Bhagavadgita.

Fecundity and the Social Body

My comments, in the introduction, about procreation and bodily agency offer a contrast to the reigning sexual subjectivity, but they have no necessary implications for conceptions of marriage and family. A starting point in procreative givens imposes no clear conclusions. Highly reproductive polygamy is probably the most logical next step. Theological proposals about marriage and family ought to be grounded in some account of our nature, but they hardly can be defended or secured by appeals to pre-social desire or nature as such. The best that can be said (not second to naturalism but better) is that Christian practices of marriage fit with wider practices of the Christian life, and when in good working order, they reproduce social practices that also define the church. Steadfast faithfulness in marriage, for instance, points to a grammar of bodily presence formed through the practices of the body of Christ. ideal meaning, but by their context in the course of common life. Some...

How can God be three persons yet one

Kautzsch, ed., Gesenius'Hebrew Grammar 2d ed. (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1910), Section 124g, n. 2, with reference to the suggestion of a plural of majesty The plural used by God in Genesis 1 26, 11 7, Isaiah 6 8 has been incorrectly explained in this way. They understand Gen. 1 26 as a plural of self-deliberation. My own extensive search of subsequent Jewish interpretation in the Babylonian Talmud, the targumim and the midrashim showed only that later Rabbinic interpreters were unable to reach agreement on any satisfactory interpretation of this passage, although the plural of majesty and God speaking to angels interpretations were commonly suggested.

Refusing the question

What, then, is at stake between the theist and the atheist as Thomas conceives of the issues Why does it matter whether the existence of God can be rationally proved What is at stake is an issue which is, after all, central to all human intellectual preoccupations as such. It is an issue about the nature of reason, and so of intellect, and about how to take responsibility for all that intellect is capable of, about how to respond to the demands which, of its nature, it makes on us to persist with rational enquiry to the end of its tether. What, then, does the atheist have to deny What the atheist has to deny is the legitimacy of a certain kind of question, to deny which requires setting a priori limits to a capacity which is, as Aristotle says, potentially infinite which being so, Thomas Aquinas adds, it is not going to be satisfied by - that is to say, enjoy any question-stopping complacency in - even an infinite object. For what, on this account, marks the limit of reason, is not...

David Matzko McCarthy

This chapter interprets fecundity in terms of the socially situated body and a cultural grammar of desire. It undertakes the difficult task of dealing with sexual generativity in a socioeconomic world that separates the meaning of sex from reproduction and conceives of procreation less as economically productive and more as a form of consumption. The first section of the chapter offers an analysis of sexual desire as it is reproduced within the market economy. Sex, in this setting, is productive of both desire and a naturalism that conceals the expansion of dominant social forms. We live in sexually agonistic times. Masked by the idea of the natural sexual self is an economy of desire that perpetuates the struggle by pushing contentment out of the everyday world. The second section criticizes recent currents in the theology of marriage insofar as a modern turn inward sustains this otherworldly economy of desire. By beginning with my reference to a woman's agency in carrying a child, I...

The conditions of proof

Met by a proof of God's existence, this will be because the argument-strategy of such a proof succeeds in 'crossing the gap' (which is not a gap) from creatures to a God who is unknowably incommensurable with any creaturely existence, a God who is thus at once 'wholly other' (as Derrida would say) and 'not-other' (as Nicholas of Cusa would say), or (as the pseudo-Denys says) is 'beyond both similarity and difference'. And from this paradoxical conjunction of conditions follows another that a rational proof of the existence of God is constrained by the constraints which, quite generally, govern the 'grammar' of all theological language, namely of a complex interplay and dialectic of the affirmative and negative, the 'cataphatic' and the 'apophatic' - constraints of which Christian believers know simply from within their attempts to articulate their own central doctrines above all, the doctrinal formulations of their Christology. In short, the 'shape' of a proof of God's existence must...

Thomass Affiliations with the Aristotle of the Ethics

Would we get at Thomas's relation to Aristotle more adequately by describing it as Thomas adopting or adapting Aristotelian vocabularies Thomas learns from Aristotle a powerful and supple set of interlocking terminologies through which to talk about so many parts of the world. Thomas takes over large portions of these terminologies, as he takes over Aristotle's concern for the ranges of meaning in philosophic argument, for deduction from deep grammar, and so on. Still we have to add immediately that Thomas does this with other writers as well. There is a plurality of philosophic vocabularies in Thomas and they are constellated differently around different topics. Thomas treats the Aristotelian vocabularies as one voice in a variable hierarchy of traditions of philosophic speech. It may be the privileged voice in some cases, but it is never the only one, nor the only one to be privileged. Its juxtaposition with other voices, other vocabularies, modifies it in various ways. Thomas reads...

The Biblical Standard for Interpretation

In the very first verse of Revelation, John provides us with an important interpretive key The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show His servants what must shortly take place and He sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John (Rev. 1 1). The use of the term signify tells us that the prophecy is not simply to be taken as history written in advance. Instead, it is a book of signs symbolic representations of the coming events. The symbols are not to be understood in a literal manner. We can see this by John's use of the term in his Gospel (see John 12 33 18 32 21 19). In each case, it is used of Christ signifying a future event by a more or less symbolic indication, rather than by a clear and literal description. And this is generally the form of the prophecies in the Revelation. This does not mean the symbols are unintelligible the interpretation is not up for grabs. On the other hand, I am not saying that the symbols are in some kind of code, so that all we...

Faith as a Mode of Knowing

Even to suggest that faith and reason might complement one another in executing human inquiry is to move beyond the thought categories of modernism, where speaking of faith as a mode of knowing would have displayed a severe breach of etiquette, if not constituted an oxymoron. Alasdair MacIntyre's trenchant argumentation designed to show how any human inquiry must be tradition-directed recalls John Henry Newman's Grammar of Assent, composed to counter a set of Cartesian presumptions regarding paradigmatic rational inquiry in the heyday of modernity, the latter half of the nineteenth century (Lash 1983). The relevance of his reflective study today aptly confirms his observation that ideas have their time. Yet if the mutual normativity of faith and reason exemplifies the thirteenth century, while cleanly separating (if not opposing) them characterizes modernity, the move to post-modernity however that protean term be construed is intent (in its constructive mode) on seeking proper...

Law Order Beauty

The natural law is the participation of rational creatures in the eternal law through sharing in divine wisdom (1-2.91.2). While all creatures are guided by the eternal law, rational creatures are guided by God precisely through their intellects. Thomas' initial emphasis is not on natural law as an autonomous human faculty, but on how the human ability to discern good and evil is nothing else than the imprint on us of the divine light (1-2.91.2). This participation in divine reason provides rational creatures with first principles of moral reasoning. These first principles are not conclusions about particular actions, but rather what one might call the basic grammar of such reasoning (see 1-2.94.2). The first precept of moral reasoning - good is to be done and pursued and evil is to be avoided - does not tell us whether any particular action is good or evil, but that no action can be simultaneously good (and therefore to be pursued) and evil (and therefore to be avoided) at the same...

Frank R Trqmbley

Education in grammar, rhetoric and the Greek paideia provided an ideological basis for the city councillors' religious opinions it was a key factor in their resistance to Christian ideas, particularly where the conflicting theologies gave rival interpretations of particular questions, such as the divine nature, cosmogony and ethics. The importance of the Greek paideia is particularly evident in the writings of Themistius, who taught rhetoric in Ancyra in the mid-fourth century, but also in many Christian inscriptions.3

Theological rhetoric

There is therefore something almost frighteningly 'materialistic' about Eckhart's theology which, when looked at in this way, could with good reason be cause to revise some assumptions about Eckhart's dauntingly high-minded, and supposedly elitist, 'mysticism'. Eckhart's theology is in principle a demotic theology, and in his sermons it has taken on the character almost of a drama at any rate, theology has become an act, for it enacts in its performance what it is about as word. For when Eckhart looks for God, he looks for him in what is most 'material', even 'animal', within our rational nature in the materiality of the 'foregrounded signifier'. And if in this respect Eckhart's theology has, as Davies says, something of the character of the 'poetic', we can also say that it has something of the character of the sacramental its enactment says what it signifies. It is as true, therefore, of Eckhart as it is of Thomas that he wants to find God in the created order but he differs from...


The three movements just mentioned (non-realism, pragmatism and existentialism) can be construed as reactions to Hegel's Idealism, Rationalism and metaphysical confidence. If metaphysical schemes of cosmic proportions are rejected, one may go on to reject human reason itself as a reliable source of truth. Such a view is most fully expressed by Karl Earth, whose Church Dogmatics rejects any appeal to reason as justifying faith. The Bible is to be accepted on faith, as defining the grammar of faith, and any doctrine of God must be taken solely from the Bible.


The reader-interpreter aims at the search for truth, but realizes that his apprehension of that truth requires a bringing together of several perspectives. The historical-grammatical approach supposes the reader's competence with matters of history and grammar. History is more than the study of acts and facts. It has a theological dimension and thus requires interpretation (see Eugene H. Merrill's essay, 3. OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY A THEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE, B. The Structure of the OT ) as well as a method of working with the exegetical evidence (see V. Philips Long's essay, 4. OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY A HERMENEUTICAL PERSPECTIVE, C. Historical Interpretation of the OT Four Steps ). History is also a story (narrative). God communicates truth through stories, narrative techniques, and literary genres. The biblical stories permit the reader to view God's activity in human affairs by the narrative approach and by application of the literary technique. While...

The Big Disconnect

One of the things that was uniquely our own was hip-hop. My generation was in grammar school and junior high when we first heard those mesmerizing beats and fluid lyrics. We embraced the sound, invented the culture, and developed it into what it is now. Of course, it is ever evolving, but its roots live in us. Like many young men my age without fathers, I lost myself in hip-hop. I found myself in hip-hop. I ate, slept, and breathed it. And the fact that men my father's age hated it made it that much sweeter to me. At last I had something that was all my own, created by men I could relate to. And in those lyrics I learned pretty much all that I wanted to know about gettin' paid, gettin' laid, and becoming a man (such as it was). I found my own gospel. I found my own code that came complete with its own community of fellow believers.

The Lectio

The lector routinely focused on traditionally respected texts. The lectio for teachers of grammar was centered on the texts of Donatus and Priscian the lectio for the teachers of rhetoric concentrated on the texts attributed to Cicero and Quintilian. The lectio for the dialecticians centered on Porphyry's Isagoge Introduction , Aristotle's Categories and On Interpretations, and Boethius's commentaries on them. The lectio for theology was the biblical text. These were the authoritative texts. The glosses providing definitions, etymologies, and so forth came from those who offered special help. For the Bible, in particular, the authorities were Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine, Hilary, Basil, Gregory the Great, John Chrysostom, and others. The philosophical authorities were Aristotle, Cicero, Boethius, Plato, Chalcidius, Marius Victorinus, Macrobius, and Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite. The chief characteristics of the lectio were that it was authoritative, based on respected interpreters,...

Defining the Virtues

25 A decade after writing and publishing a first version of this argument, I discovered the extraordinary 1998 lecture by Victor Preller, Water into Wine, now available in Grammar and Grace Reformulations of Aquinas and Wittgenstein, eds. Jeffrey Stout and Robert MacSwain (London SCM Press, 2004), pp. 253-267. In it, I find so much with which to agree, including this succinct summary of my abiding concerns I shall now simply put all my cards on the table and say that whenever Aquinas writes he writes as a theologian, for a theological purpose, making use of theological assumptions. He talks about philosophy as a theologian. He does not do philosophy (p. 262).

A limit question

That 'there is something outside language' For either the 'there is' is itself inside language and we can make sense of it but with the consequence that the 'something' must be inside language too, and so not God or else the 'there is' is outside language, and ex hypothesi we can make no more sense of it than we can of the 'something'. The theist has got to have it one way or the other. But one way is the way of 'onto-theology' the other leaves us with no language of existence in theological use. In short, either way the Nietzschean dilemma will eventually catch up with the negative theologian - if you want God, you have got to have grammar or if not Nietzsche's, then Derrida's - you cannot both fully deconstruct grammar, that is, deny any ultimate signifier, and keep God. But this negative theology appears to be constrained both to say that 'God exists' is an ultimately undeconstructible existential affirmation, and to deconstruct, deny of possibility, any ultimate true existential...


Out of the multitude of examples cited in the various texts, one from Lockhart on Ephesians 2 8 may be cited. For by grace are ye saved through faith and that not of yourselves it is the gift of God. He says We may ask, what is the gift of God Many would answer, 'grace' many others, 'faith' some, 'salvation.' But what does the grammar require After eliminating grace and faith as the antecedents of that, he proceeds The only other possible antecedent is the salvation expressed by the verb 'saved.' Some have objected that the Greek noun for salvation is feminine but we must notice that salvation is here expressed by the verb, and Greek grammar again requires that a pronoun which refers to the action of a verb for its antecedent must be neuter. This exactly suits the case and the meaning is, Ye are saved by grace through faith but the salvation is not of yourselves, it is the gift of God. Here the interpretation that accords with the grammar is reasonable and satisfactory (Principles of...

Stephen F Brown

The term theology, although employed at times by Abelard, really became current only in the thirteenth century, in the setting of the newly formed universities. There, at first, the preparatory curriculum for those who were to study Scripture followed the seven liberal arts the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music). Quite quickly, in the thirteenth century, that curriculum changed when many more of the works of Aristotle became available in Latin translations and expanded the area called dialectic. Since the time of Boethius (d. 524) some of Aristotle's logical works were available in competent Latin forms, and with solid commentaries. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the rest of his logical works and all of his more philosophical works became available. For our present consideration, the Physics and Metaphysics were most important. In different ways, they dealt with divine things. Aristotle himself speaks of...

Esse and analogy

Precise theological statement, intended to mark out with maximum clarity and precision the locus of the divine incomprehensibility, the ratio Dei, the most fundamental of the 'formal features' of God, to use Burrell's terminology.28 Since it is far from being the case that describing God as 'pure act' gives us some firm purchase on the divine nature, one may go so far as to say that talking about God thus is already a kind of failed speech, a 'babble' for to pretend that we remain in full command of the meaning of such words through any self-evidently meaningful extension of their ordinary senses is idolatrously reductive of theological language. It is only just inappropriate to call such theological speech 'babble' in so far as, unlike mere babble, to call God by the name 'pure act', or ipsum esse subsistens, retains that degree of connection with the logic of our ordinary discourse which licenses us to derive, with consistency and coherence, what follows from saying it, and what...

Queer Church

David Matzko McCarthy reflects on fecundity, and on what should be the church's understanding of family in the modern world, a concept and practice which are now so resolutely compromised by the interests of consumer capitalism. McCarthy is more wary than some contributors to this book of thinking sex and sexuality constructed. But this does not mean that he advocates a nature which operates independently of our social selves. Rather he wants an account of the self and its desires which attends to their constitution as natural and social. Society and nature are not agents which stand over against the self, and which the self must either accept or reject. Rather they are the domains in which the self acts and is acted upon and McCarthy is concerned to argue that within these interwoven domains, sexual activity is reproductive, both naturally and socially sex is social reproduction. Sex not only produces children but reproduces patterns of desire that are as much social as they are...

Faith And Reason

Basically, for Augustine, all the traditional Greek and Roman liberal arts (grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music) could be helpful indeed, even necessary for understanding the Scriptures, yet he always stressed that they must be at the service of the divinely revealed truth.

Black theology

Human), ordered (as inferior to whites), labelled (as primitive, barbaric etc,) and interrogated (as to its utility slavery and the exploitation of labour in much of the Third World being perhaps the best examples of this). It has now been established by a number of scholars, both white and non-white, that the philosophers of the Enlightenment and the scientists as well as the would-be scientists of the nineteenth century showed a great interest in the question of race an interest in which the humanity of blacks was ridiculed and sometimes denied. The gurus of western philosophical thought, Kant, Hegel, Hume, Voltaire and other less well-known scholars, all produced works in which they openly displayed their racism against blacks. It is in the works of these men that 'the grammar of racialised discourse' which underlies much of modernity's view of the self as, among other things, a racial subject, was forged. When in Tancred or the New Crusade Disraeli says, 'All is race. There is no...


Just as those who thought themselves modern could not escape being post-medieval, so we are fated to be postmodern once we reject a foundational account of inquiry. Yet the way beyond rejection to a constructive account has already been suggested by alluding to Newman's Grammar of Assent, composed as a direct riposte to modernist conceptions of philosophical inquiry in their heyday.8 The strategy of mutual clarification outlined here has been structured by Alasdair MacIntyre's elaboration of Newman's

The Alaskan Mission

John Veniaminov (1797-1879) and his family arrived on the island of Unalaska in 1824. As part of his missionary work, the young priest created an Aleut alphabet, basing it on Cyrillic characters. A dictionary and grammar soon followed. These provided the basis for a translation of the Gospel of St Matthew and portions of the liturgy. He wrote a basic catechism entitled 'Indication of the Pathway into the Kingdom'. He also taught the natives agricultural techniques, carpentry and metalworking. During

Which Version

There have not been significant advances in the understanding of biblical Greek since the KJV was translated. The discovery of secular papyri has not been as beneficial in Christian word study as once hoped. (See Turner, pp. xii-xiii.) Also Cadbury commented, It would be a mistake to exaggerate the extent to which such revised judgments of the language can be actually recorded in translation. Improved knowledge of the original is often mainly a matter of slight nuances than such as to necessitate one English rendering instead of another. Henry J. Cadbury, The Vocabulary and Grammar of New Testament Greek, in An introduction to the Revised Standard Version of the

New England Colonies

As Calvinists, the New England Puritans believed that education was a principal avenue through which children would become conversant with Scripture. They also considered it essential for society to achieve social and religious stability and to develop a particularly well-read clergy. In 1636, John Harvard, a godly Gentleman and a lover of Learning, established Harvard College to raise up a class of learned men for the Christian ministry so that the tongues and arts might be taught and learning and piety maintained. It has been said that 123 of this nation's first 126 colleges were of Christian origin. In order to prepare children for college, town governments established Latin grammar schools. The clergy sometimes participated in the educational process by teaching certain children the classics, either by tutoring them or by taking them into their families as boarding pupils. Notably, the 1642 measure had nothing to do with schools or teachers, just instruction, the responsibility...

Nancy Pearcey

The most significant change in modern times is a divided view of truth-which means that challenges to Christianity come in two different forms. On one side, there's postmodern relativism, where nothing is true or false, right or wrong. In the typical public school classroom today, English teachers have tossed out their red pencils, as though correct spelling or grammar were nothing but social constructs imposed by those in power. Postmodern categories are applied especially to areas like morality and religion, reducing them to nothing but subjective personal experience or quaint ethnic customs.

Debate and Agenda

Because of his own use of metaphors of the incompleteness and fragmentariness of life, it has been all too easy to think that his own lack of systematization reflects chiefly the lack of opportunity for it - that finitude and fate merely got in the way. There is much to suggest, however, that Bonhoeffer's writing can best be encountered as the spirituality of the pastor as much as the theology of the professor. That is to say, he is as concerned to articulate a pastoral theology of vocation as to state any systematic answers to the mysteries of faith. He is best understood as himself a perpetual pilgrim - for whom being a Christian was a task rather than an accomplishment - who as a theologian longed to provide that grammar of faith capable of putting into play all the grand voices of the theological greats before him - and more importantly, capable of giving voice to the transformative capacity of the gospel to remake life anew. As Douglas John Hall has noted Among the modern...

Sex without Ends

My point is that sex is social reproduction, that sexual practices cohere with and perpetuate forms of social production. With this claim, culture as such is not set over against nature as such, but neither are they considered a seamless whole. There are a variety of contending and coextensive social forms, and it is plausible to propose that any given culture or era will be a complex of dominant, emergent, residual, and auxiliary social forms, all of which impinge upon, contend for, and form feelings, impulses, rationality, and conceptions of the social or pre-social self (Raymond Williams 1977 121-8). Some social and sexual practices, perhaps, are reproduced more naturally than others, but it is a particularly modern notion that it is important (or possible) to distinguish difference between natural and social, and that the difference can be determined without a conception of human beings as created with an end. Modern sex without ends lacks a conception of human fulfillment that...


These trends, growing increasingly strong with the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, ran alongside a steady continuance in the familiar mediaeval ways. Indeed, in some universities in late fifteenth-century Germany, courses in new humanist work were conducted on the fringes of the syllabus. For some decades two types of textbook of grammar and logic were being produced the old and the new, technically simplified, which claimed to cut through all the dead wood and present the essentials. Peter Ramus' reworking of Aristotle is perhaps the most influential of these. Universities, such as Wittenberg in the first half of the sixteenth century, which took a lead in the teaching of Greek and encouraged the new approach to the teaching of grammar and logic, can still be found conducting disputationes in the late mediaeval way, in the middle of the century. Scholasticism was noisily rejected by protestant scholarship in the sixteenth century and after, although its methods continued...


How is a theologian to relate these various topics to each other One tendency (corresponding to the second type described above) is to see Christianity as having a certain coherence in itself. The doctrines together are the intellectual description of this. So Lindbeck (see chapter 14) compares doctrines to the statement of the basic grammar or rules showing how a language or culture hangs together. This makes the Christian community the main home of Christian theology (cf. Barth's Church Dogmatics) and asserts the priority of a distinctive Christian identity, as expressed above all in the Bible. The way theology is integrated in such an approach is through something internal to the tradition, usually the Bible or one or more key doctrines. Other worldviews and disciplines are discussed and may contribute, but not as equals or superiors.

Types of Education

Though education in early colonial America was emphatically religious, it varied in type in different areas of the country. The New England colonies, under the control of the Puritans, developed a compulsory educational system in the early 1600s. People of many different sects, none being dominant, inhabited the Middle Atlantic colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Such pluralism made common schools undesirable, and parochial schools sprang up to accommodate the various denominations. The Southern colonies, being geographically and culturally distinct, used the English charity schools-grammar schools aimed at providing a very basic education for the poor in Britain-as their educational model.


Luther's critique of Erasmus's exegetical methods and theology does not concern us directly here. But he raised the central issues of the relationship between 'grammar' and 'grace' (as one recent expositor has put it) to which Reformed theologians would return over the next century and a half Original Sin, free will, predestination.4 Luther sensed all sorts of dangers the historicizing of holy scriptures, the relativizing of truth, and the constraint of God's sovereign power. As was his way, he defined his own position as the defence of truth against those in error. For the theologians of the upper Rhineland, however, the potential of Erasmus's method and the capacity of the unleashed word of God, rightly understood, to change people's lives remained undiminished. They shared Erasmus's approach to biblical hermeneutics and exegesis. Whereas Luther and the Wittenberg school constructed their biblical commentaries in terms of linked theological themes, or 'commonplaces' (loci communes),...

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