population estimate ofJews in Egypt, 57 Timaeus, influence of,435

Philo of Byblos, 232 Philodemus of Gadara, 78 philosophy. See also specific schools, e.g. Plato and Platonism Alexandria, philosophical schools of, 487 Christian education, role in, 489 Christianity's resemblance to a philosophical school, 469, 486, 487 contemporary views on history and derivation from ancient cultures, 235-7 division into schools, 'corruption' due to,

234, 235-6

eclectic approach to, 490 iconography ofChrist the teacher/philosopher, 484, 575 Irenaeus' background in, 266 Jews viewed as nation of, 4i5 Justin Martyr on derivation from Moses,

23i, 233-5

Marcion's philosophical and metaphysical approach to Christianity, i98 monotheism and creation, 434-6 North Africans on, 392 pagan philosophers identified as

'Christian', 224, 243, 254, 255 Paul's disputes with philosophers, ii4 in Roman empire, 77-9 Rome, philosophical schools of, 406-ii, 487, 488

Philostorgius, on Council of Nicaea, 553, 562

Phoebe of Cenchreae, ii8


North Africa, Phoenicians' settlement in, 382-5

rural Christianity in, 3ii Phos hilaron, i2 Photinus, 558

Phrygia. See also specific cities, e.g. Hierapolis Christian cities of, 5i7 Christian epigraphy and funerary inscriptions, 303 demographics of early Christianity in, 308, 309, 3i2, 3i8 physical format of Christian literature

(codex), i80, i84, i92, 227 physical ritual positions and gestures, i68, i70

physics or natural philosophy as part of

Christian education, 489, 490 Pilate. See Pontius Pilate pilgrimage. See Jerusalem, pilgrimage to Pindar, on custom as against novelty 238 Pionius, martyrdom of, 5i4

Plato and Platonism. See also Middle Platonism

Athenagoras' acceptance ofcosmology of,

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